In 1857, Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the
seat of government for the Province of Canada. This followed years of intense
rivalry among the elected representatives of the pre‑Confederation
colonies of Upper and Lower Canada, who could not agree on a permanent site.
The itinerant Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada met in several
different cities, beginning with Kingston in 1841. In 1844, it moved to Montreal where it remained until 1849 when the legislative building was
burned by rioters.
Thereafter a system was adopted under which the Assembly met alternately in Quebec and Toronto before finally settling into its permanent home in Ottawa, where it met
for the first time in 1866. With the advent of Confederation the following
year, the capital of the Province of Canada became the national capital, in
compliance with the Constitution Act, 1867, which states that “the seat
of Government of Canada shall be Ottawa”.
Accordingly, the Parliament of Canada assembled in Ottawa on
November 6, 1867 for the First Session of the First Parliament.
 For a complete history of the selection of Ottawa as the capital
city, see Eggleston, W., The Queen’s Choice, Ottawa: Queen’s
Printer, 1961, pp. 99-110.
 During a time of political and economic crisis, protest coalesced
against the governor’s assent to the Rebellion Losses Bill (compensating losses
suffered in Lower Canada during the 1837 rebellion). There were days of
rioting, in the course of which an angry mob invaded the Parliament Building. The building burned on April 25, 1849, and very little was saved. See
Careless, J.M.S., The Union of the Canadas, Toronto: McClelland
and Stewart Limited, 1967, pp. 122‑6.
 R.S. 1985, Appendix II, No. 5, s. 16. The
choice of Ottawa as the national capital is reflected in the Quebec Resolutions
of 1864, adopted by delegates from the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick, and the colonies of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, and the
London Resolutions of 1866, adopted by delegates from the provinces of Canada,
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The Quebec Resolutions, 1864, and the London
Resolutions, 1866, may be found in Ollivier, M., British North America
Acts and Selected Statutes, 1867‑1962, Ottawa: Queen’s Printer,
1962, p. 47, s. 52; p. 58, s. 51.