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CANADA'S 150TH ANNIVERSARY IN 2017

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Committee Mandate

Canada will celebrate a milestone in 2017: the 150th anniversary of the coming into force of the British North America Act (now the Constitution Act, 1867) on July 1, 1867. In March 2010, the Institute of Public Administration of Canada and the firm MASS LBP hosted 150!Canada, a conference during which more than 300 delegates, public servants, business leaders, university professors and artists gathered at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa to discuss ways of marking the occasion.[1]

In order to contribute to the discussions on the celebration of Canada’s 150th anniversary, on September 27, 2011, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (the Committee) adopted the following motion:

That the Committee undertake a study of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations, and that in relation to this study, the Committee hear from the Minister of Canadian Heritage and stakeholders from across Canada.[2]

The Honourable James Moore, Minister of Canadian Heritage and Official Languages, appeared before the Committee on October 20, 2011. He said the 150th anniversary of Confederation “should be an occasion for reflecting on what we have achieved as a relatively young country, and it should be an opportunity to promote a strong sense of pride and belonging for all Canadians.”[3] He asked the Committee to “stir up ideas, to bring witnesses before this committee who have great ideas on how Parliament can contribute to a national dialogue on how we move forward.”[4]

The Committee held meetings on the study of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations until April 26, 2012. It held a total of 18 meetings, during which it heard from 54 groups and individuals. It also received 15 written submissions.

1.2 The Committee’s Report

Chapter 2 of this report examines the successes and lessons learned during planning of previous national celebrations, including Canada’s Centennial in 1967, Canada’s 125th anniversary in 1992 and the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. After looking at their organizational structures and planning timelines, the chapter provides a summary of the testimony of witnesses on these celebrations.

Chapter 3 looks at the major topics raised by witnesses, including suggested themes for the 150th anniversary celebrations, the role of information technology, the role of the Government of Canada, the creation of a commission to organize the 150th anniversary, the participation of the private sector, and the legacies of the 150th anniversary. Chapter 4 looks at public participation, Chapter 5 examines the contribution of museums to the 150th anniversary celebration and Chapter 6 summarizes the Committee’s recommendations.

2.1 The First Anniversary of Confederation (1868) and the 50th Anniversary (1917)

The first anniversary of Confederation in 1868 was the subject of a proclamation by the Governor General. Canada’s population at the time was 3.5 million.[5] The next organized celebration was the 50th anniversary in 1917, when the new Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings[6] was “dedicated as a memorial to the Fathers of Confederation and to the valour of Canadians fighting in the First World War in Europe.”[7] In 1917, the population of Canada was 8 million.[8]

2.2 The Diamond Jubilee of Confederation (1927)

For the 60th anniversary of Confederation, Parliament enacted the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation Act, 1927, which incorporated a National Committee to:

... make and carry out necessary arrangements in cooperation with the provinces and other bodies for an effective celebration of the sixtieth anniversary of the formation of the Dominion of Canada, and to administer and distribute a grant of $250,000.[9] [10]

The National Committee issued a booklet suggesting that local committees across Canada organize public religious ceremonies.[11] It also organized a celebration in Ottawa which included the laying of the cornerstone of the Confederation Building and the inauguration of the Carillon in the Peace Tower.[12] This celebration was the subject of the first national radio broadcast in Canadian history.[13] In 1927, the population of Canada was 9.6 million.[14]

2.3 Canada’s Centennial (1967)

Official preparations for celebrating the Centennial of Confederation began as early as 1959, when Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker announced the start of planning for the Centennial. In 1961, Parliament passed the National Centennial Act (the Act), which established an administrative framework for the federal government’s involvement. In 1963, the Act was renamed the Centennial of Confederation Act and amended to establish a corporation known as the Centennial Commission.

The Centennial Commission’s mandate was to promote interest in the Centennial and to plan programs and projects related to the Centennial’s historical significance. To these ends, the Centennial Commission established a national program to encourage Canadians’ participation and to provide programming that would reach the maximum number of Canadians.[15] In 1967, the population of Canada was 20.4 million.[16]

The Centennial Commission was assisted by a National Committee made up of federal and provincial ministers responsible for the Centennial and a National Conference made up of the Secretary of State of Canada and 60 people appointed by the Secretary of State. There was also a Centennial organization in each province. The Centennial Commission (the Commission) also worked in cooperation with the organization responsible for Expo 67, the World Exhibition held in Montréal.[17]

By 1964, the federal government had earmarked approximately $100 million (about $743.6 million in 2012 dollars) for projects related to the Centennial, including the construction of the National Library and Archives and the National Arts Centre. Also included in this amount was $25 million ($185.9 million in 2012 dollars) for the Centennial Grants Program, which was to fund projects of lasting significance. By 1967, more than 2,000 projects had been completed. In 1965, the Commission introduced the Centennial Symbol — a stylized maple leaf — and encouraged people to use it in any way they liked.[18]

The Centennial Year was launched at midnight on December 31, 1966 when Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, Secretary of State Judy LaMarsh and Leader of the Official Opposition John G. Diefenbaker took part in a ceremony to observe the lighting of the Centennial Flame on Parliament Hill.[19]

The Centennial Commission established a youth travel exchange program, under which 12,000 young people visited a province or territory other than their own. There was also an athletic awards program for school children.

The Commission sponsored two travelling exhibits — the Confederation Train and the Confederation Caravans. The Confederation Train visited 63 communities and the eight Confederation Caravans visited 655 communities, and a total of nine million people toured them.

In addition, Festival Canada, which operated semi-independently, sponsored cross-country tours by national and international companies. There were tours by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Musical Ride and a Department of Defence military tattoo. The National Gallery had a visual arts program. A Voyageur Canoe Pageant paddled from Rocky Mountain House in Alberta to Montréal. The National Film Board (NFB) produced films and television programs. There was also a publication program.[20]

In addition to the official program, there were numerous other events, such as locally organized parades and parties, as well as the first of the annual bathtub races in Nanaimo, British Columbia.[21]

Total expenditures for the Centennial Commission amounted to $85.6 million ($560.7 million in 2012 dollars). The expenditures included programs and projects of national significance (such as the Confederation Train and Caravans) and grants to the provinces for projects of a lasting nature.[22]

2.4 Canada’s 125th Anniversary (1992)

Official preparation for the 125th anniversary of Confederation began in 1989. The April 3rd Speech from the Throne said the government had “invited the participation of all the provinces and territories in planning Canada's 125th birthday in 1992.”[23] In May 1989, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney appointed the Secretary of State as Lead Minister for Canada 125. In October, the Secretary of State and the Chair of the National Capital Commission organized a national consultative conference which was attended by 400 people.[24]

In March 1991, the non-profit Canada 125 Corporation was established. Co-chaired by Frank W. King and Claude Dupras, the Corporation’s objectives were to:

  • determine the themes and approaches for the Corporation;
  • stimulate governmental, corporate and volunteer sector initiatives on a national/regional scale, encouraging financial involvement in particular;
  • provide guidance for and coordinate efforts in support of the Corporation;
  • organize, develop and manage a comprehensive communications approach for the Corporation, emphasizing Canadian achievement and encouraging pride in our accomplishments; and
  • establish links between the Corporation and other 1992 celebrations.[25]

The first meetings of the Board of Directors of the Canada 125 Corporation (the Corporation) were held in August 1991. The formal promise of federal government funding was received in October 1991. The government allocated $50 million ($73.9 million in 2012 dollars) to the Corporation, of which it spent $44 million ($65 million in 2012 dollars) — approximately 10% less.[26] In 1992, the population of Canada was 28.4 million.[27]

Between March 1991 and the end of 1992, the Board of Directors examined some 850 national project proposals. It approved funding for 50 national projects and endorsed a further 125. The first series of projects were announced in December 1991. The national projects included the holding of a National Neighbourhood Party, the dedication of the National Peacekeeping Monument in Ottawa and 450 Peace Parks nation-wide, and the beginning of construction of the TransCanada Trail. In addition, federal government departments and agencies sponsored 2,500 projects and 22,000 local events took place.[28]

Given the short lead time, the Corporation did not receive the level of corporate sponsorship it had hoped for. It had estimated the corporate sector would contribute $15 million ($22.2 million in 2012 dollars), but it only received $9.7 million ($14.3 million in 2012 dollars) in cash, goods, services and promotional value.[29]

2.5 The Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

Planning for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games began as early as 1998, when the Canadian Olympic Committee selected Vancouver to present Canada’s bid for the 2010 Olympic Games. In 2003, the International Olympic Committee selected Vancouver as the Host City of the 2010 Winter Games.

In 2004, a protocol agreement was signed with the Chiefs and Councils of the Lil'wat, Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh Nations, on whose traditional territories the games would be held. As well, work began on the Vancouver Convention and Exhibition Centre.

The 2010 Winter Games emblem was unveiled in 2005 and the Paralympic emblem was unveiled the following year. Recruitment of volunteers began in 2008 and the first of three annual Cultural Olympiads was held. During the winter of 2008-2009, test events were conducted. In the fall of 2009, the Torch Relay began.

The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games were held from February 12 to 28, 2010. The 2010 Paralympic Winter Games Torch Relay was held in March and the Paralympic Winter Games took place from March 12 to 21.[30]

The federal government allocated $1.25 billion ($1.31 billion in 2012 dollars) for specific one-time projects related to the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games (the Games). The investments were intended to provide security at the Games, as well as to leave a legacy after the Games and to ensure Canadian success stories reached a global audience. The investments included:

  • capital investments in sports facilities and event venues;
  • a Legacy Endowment Fund to ensure the facilities and sport programming will continue beyond the Games;
  • contributions to the operating costs of the Paralympic Winter Games;
  • support for the Celebration Sites Program, the Opening Ceremony, the Torch Relays, the Canadian Tourism Commission’s plan to promote travel to Canada, the Canada Pavilion, official languages, Aboriginal participation in the Games, and the Cultural Olympiad; and
  • essential federal services, including security-related services.[31]

2.6 Witness Testimony on Previous Celebrations

2.6.1 Canada’s Centennial (1967)

Witness testimony regarding the Centennial Celebrations of 1967 tended to revolve around three main topics: organization, legacies and memories.

On the topic of organization, some witnesses noted the central role the Centennial Commission played in developing unifying themes and encouraging popular participation. According to Helen Davies, who wrote a study of the Centennial, “...Centennial organizers worked to promote a vision of a unified, strong nation during a period of social change. They also succeeded in creating a space for dialogue and a consideration of difference.”[32] She went on to say: “...the centennial commission, working with provincial, territorial, and municipal governments, played a very instrumental role in establishing the framework.”[33]

On the subject of the themes of the celebration, Ms. Davies said the organizers were aware they “... should not focus solely on the past or the political act of Confederation. It was about moving into a new future.”[34] She added: “Rather than impose one vision of the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of celebration and commemoration, organizers supported an array of perspectives.” She went on to say: “...the centennial commission simply asked one thing of Canadians — to get involved and to do something to commemorate the centennial.”[35]

Ms. Davies also noted that organizers, “... made a concerted effort to engage the provincial representatives and have a dialogue with respect to what the centennial could look like in the territories and the provinces.”[36] She said there are a number of lessons to be learned from the organization of the Centennial:

An inclusive planning process that builds on a national framework and incorporates the creativity of non-governmental actors, combined with a genuine effort to support and balance numerous interests and a willingness to support local grassroots activities, are lessons we can take away from the centennial.

By not designing an overly prescripted event, the centennial organizers found a path forward that in many instances served to strengthen existing relationships and forge new ones. Canadians took time to celebrate their own personal and collective stories, painting a picture of a vibrant, dynamic country coming of age.[37]

The Committee was grateful to hear the first-hand testimony of Peter Aykroyd, who was Director of Public Relations for the Centennial Commission and who wrote a book entitled The Anniversary Compulsion: Canada’s Centennial Celebrations, a Model Mega-Anniversary. In his book, Mr. Aykroyd set out 10 principles — which he called“the Anniversary Axiomatique” — to guide future anniversary planners. He commended “the Anniversary Axiomatique” to the Committee[38] and it is reproduced in the Appendix to this report. Mr. Aykroyd also stressed the importance for planners to analyse the changes Canada has gone through since 1967.[39]

Another witness who talked about the Centennial was consultant William Thorsell who remarked that it “... was a fervent mix of bottom-up and top-down projects.”[40] Likewise, Peter MacLeod, Principal with the consulting firm MASS LBP, said:

For Canadians in 1967, it didn't matter if your way of celebrating was to build a UFO pad in St. Paul, Alberta — just in case — or to stage a bathtub race in Nanaimo, B.C., to launch a Caribbean festival in Toronto, or to host a historic re-enactment in P.E.I. The point was the people were taking charge. They were spontaneously, joyously rip, mixing and burning their own centennials clear across the country. And the government encouraged them in some very interesting ways.[41]

The second main topic raised by witnesses dealt with legacies of the Centennial. As pointed out by Minister Moore: “I think if you ask most people for a quick response about the legacy of 1967, they'll point to the physical infrastructure. You can't go very far in this country without finding a centennial arena, a centennial park, a centennial bridge, a centennial waterfront, etc.”[42] To quote Janice Price, Chief Executive Officer of Luminato, the Toronto Festival of Arts and Creativity:

We know that the reach and the impact of Canada's centennial in 1967 was monumental. It was a fantastic impetus for investing in what are now landmark cultural buildings across the country — bricks and mortar. That was much-needed hardware.[43]

Kirstin Evenden, Vice-President of the Canadian Museums Association, noted that many museums were built for the 1967 celebrations:

... we saw the emergence of hundreds of new museums in our cities and small towns. Major new buildings were opened across the country, such as the Nova Scotia Museum, the Ontario Science Centre, the Manitoba Museum, and more. Small community museums were also built as legacy gifts.[44]

In addition to numerous local infrastructure projects, there were significant national projects as well. Mr. Thorsell noted that the National Arts Centre was one of these.[45]  Daniel J. Caron, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, told the Committee that a new building was inaugurated to house the National Library of Canada.[46] As well, as pointed out by Denise Amyot, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Science and Technology Museums Corporation, the Museum of Science and Technology was opened in 1967.[47]

The Committee was reminded of another legacy by Patrick Hadsipantelis, Vice-President of Marketing and Communications at the Royal Canadian Mint, who said:

... it can be argued that the first true program was the commemorative circulation coin series issued for Canada's centennial in 1967. Every circulating denomination was given a new, iconic animal design, created by the hand of legendary Canadian artist Alex Colville. Redesigned only for Canada's centennial year, over 600 million of these coins circulated and were avidly collected by millions of Canadians.

Public opinion research indicates that Canada's Centennial was one of our most treasured national celebrations and our coins have been cited as one of the most remembered legacies of that milestone.[48]

The Centennial celebrations — along with Expo 67 — had other lasting, less tangible impacts. Minister Moore said the Centennial celebrations “brought to Canada a great sense of pride in our history.”[49] In addition, André Picard, Vice-President for Public and Corporate Affairs for the Just For Laughs Group, remarked:

The scale and scope of holding the world's fair and celebrating our centennial awakened Canadians to the limitlessness of our capabilities and the opportunities of success in Canada and abroad. It inspired a generation of entrepreneurs, especially in the arts. It was, in a sense, a Canadian renaissance.[50]

The third main topic of the testimony related to the Centennial dealt with memories. Keith Neuman, Group Vice-President for Public Affairs for the Environics Research Group Ltd., said that Environics had conducted a survey about what Canadians remember about 1967. He testified:

... many Canadians have very fond and very strong memories of 1967 and the centennial celebrations. About one-third of Canadians remember directly what was there ... and another quarter remember from hearing about it from other people.[51]

Mr. Neuman went on to give details about the survey findings. He said:

... we asked people in the survey, if they remembered it, what were the feelings that the centennial or Expo 67 brought to mind? Do you still have those feelings? The feelings were all very positive. It was pride, pride in Canada, joy, happiness. There was very little negative emotion. What's striking is that going back that many years, people who were there even as young children still had vivid emotional memories. It may be that emotional connection is the most important.[52]

At the anecdotal level, a number of witnesses told the Committee they personally had strong memories of 1967. These included Mr. Picard of the Just For Laughs Group; Mr. Thorsell; Andrea Shaw, Founder and Managing Partner of the Twentyten Group; Stuart Murray, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights; and Claude Joli-Coeur, Assistant Commissioner of the National Film Board of Canada.

2.6.2 Canada’s 125th Anniversary (1992)

The Centennial 125th anniversary celebrations were described by Paul LaBarge, Chair of the Trans Canada Trail, who served as secretary to Canada 125:

Canada 125 was the entity created by the federal government for the celebration of the 125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation. There were a broad range of events and projects but the most successful were those that brought Canadians together as Canadians, as participants, and not as spectators.

So the success of Canada 125 was focused on events that were initiated by the people, with Canada 125 being an enabler.[53]

Mr. LaBarge went on to say:

... the single most successful event that was planned by Canada 125 was something called the block party. (...) What happened was that Canada 125 created a bucket, effectively, and in that bucket were streamers, logos, flags, ideas — initiatives for a party. Those parties all took place on the same day, July 1, 1992, and it was an enormous success.[54]

Russell Mills, Chair of the Board of Directors of the National Capital Commission (NCC), described how the NCC led the celebrations in the National Capital Region. It “coordinated efforts with national museums and institutions to create 125 days of programming...”[55] Mr. Hadsipantelis of the Royal Canadian Mint talked about the Mint’s efforts to encourage public participation in designing coins to celebrate Canada’s 125th anniversary. It held a national competition to create 12 new commemorative coins, one for each Canadian province and territory at the time.[56] In addition, the Trans Canada Trail was founded as a legacy project of Canada 125. Begun in 1992, it is now nearly 75% complete.[57]

Unlike the Centennial celebrations, however, the Canada 125 celebrations were planned in a very short time. According to Mr. LaBarge, “... Canada 125 was done like a nine-alarm drill. It only started months before the actual year and, as a result, we were playing catch-up ball virtually from the get-go.”[58] In addition, he said the celebrations left little legacy. He said: “there were well-attended events, but they were there and then they were gone. They had no residue. It was like a flash grenade: there was a little bit of ash and that was it.”[59] Colin Jackson, Chair of imagiNation 150 (Calgary), also testified that “so little was done with” Canada’s 125th anniversary.[60]

2.6.3 The Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

Witnesses who spoke about the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games generally spoke of them as being well organized and successful. To quote Minister Moore:

... the 2010 Olympic Games were also a very special event. There were major victories in 2010 in sports, culture and official languages. The involvement of Aboriginals was unparalleled in such a large event. It was higher than in 1988 or 1976. In my opinion, it was a benchmark for this type of event.[61]

Ms. Shaw of the Twentyten Group spent 10 years on the Vancouver Organizing Committee. She said that success relies on forming a clear vision well in advance and creating a strategic plan that spells out what is needed to achieve the vision.[62] Regarding the planning of the Olympic Torch Relay specifically, she said:

The planning that went into the torch relays and into the way we engaged the nation was through focus groups across the country. We talked to all stakeholder groups. From tourism to Aboriginals to athletes, we polled people across the country as to what this torch relay would look like. We looked at such things as inclusivity; we looked at all aspects. We knew that if this was to be engaging enough to engage Canadians, we had to get right into the roots of Canada: we had to get into municipalities and small communities; we had to have government involved at all levels, municipal, provincial, and federal; we needed to engage the nation at all levels from coast to coast to coast. That's what we went about in our planning. It took six years to plan that torch relay and be able to go out and flawlessly execute the plan.[63]

Ms. Shaw also talked about the success in attracting corporate and government partners for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and in raising $765 million ($802 million in 2012 dollars) in corporate partnerships. She said, “We did it by forming strategic partnerships. We formed partnerships with companies that had like visions and values to ours....”[64]

Mr. Thorsell agreed that strategic vision was important to the success of the 2010 Winter Olympics and said the Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics were:

... an example of a strategic vision closely held by the leadership there and implemented so that everything fed into the same sense of participation. That ran across the country with all of the different groups, symbolizing that very effectively in the way that First Nations participated and so forth.[65]

Mr. Picard of the Just For Laughs Group said the Vancouver Olympics were characterized by national involvement and engagement and were “a great example of the proper build-up of awareness, the development of the event, and finally the celebration.” He elaborated by saying:

The torch relay brought the Olympic spirit to every region of the country and allowed Canadians to take ownership of this exciting event. Through the Cultural Olympiad and the on-site provincial pavilions, the Olympics showcased the Canadian people in all our disparate charm and beauty. They created a pan-Canadian experience that won over visitors and lifted spirits of Canadians from coast to coast.

The 2010 games left a legacy of state-of-the-art training facilities, but the more important legacy is the shared sense of belonging and pride that brought our nation together, and the belief that anything is possible is still burning within us.[66]

Ms. Price of Luminato, Toronto Festival of Arts and Creativity also talked about the importance of the cultural events that accompanied the 2010 Vancouver Olympics. She identified several key elements that contributed to the success of the cultural events:

>One is a central organizing body. Designating one body that has the respect and the legitimacy within the sectors to coordinate activities was, we believe, very important. It had a national scope, which obviously this new celebration has to have. While Vancouver was the focus, the torch relay and the subsequent community events ensured that it was a truly national celebration. How can we promote similar regional celebrations and also regional exchange?

Also, there is the buildup of excitement. It takes years to develop and prepare cultural product to be of the highest international calibre.[67]

Regarding the participation of Aboriginal peoples, Clément Chartier, President of the Métis National Council, commended the efforts made to involve Aboriginal people, especially in the opening ceremonies.[68] Peter Dinsdale, Chief Operating Officer of the Assembly of First Nations, concurred, saying:

When people think of the 2010 Olympics, they think of the participation of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit in those celebrations. I don't think there was ever an overt statement that we were going to have these four host nations treated as heads of state, that we were going to have these significant celebrations and engagements — like the First Nations torch-bearer program, the legacy fund, or the whole gamut of what took place.

The legacy was the engagement. The legacy was the high profile that these leaders had at the event and the level of engagement that took place.[69]

2.7 Successes and Lessons Learned

The Centennial celebrations of 1967 had a strong organizational structure and planning began years in advance. The celebrations left a legacy of physical infrastructure and lasting memories. Some of these memories were linked to Expo 67, which was not a Centennial activity per se, but which coincided with the anniversary. The Confederation Train and the Confederation Caravan were also very successful and left lasting memories.

The 125th anniversary celebrations of 1992 were planned in a short period of time. While many local events took place, they left little legacy, with the exception of the National Peacekeeping Monument and 450 Peace Parks and the Trans Canada Trail.

The Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games had a strong organization and planning took place over many years. Witnesses praised the Games for their inclusiveness and their exciting events.

To sum up, witnesses who talked about the Centennial in 1967, Canada’s
 125th anniversary in 1992 and the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games identified several lessons for organizing a successful celebration:

  • Beginning preparation well in advance of the celebration;
  • Establishing an organizing body with a clear mandate;
  • Having a well-defined vision of what the celebration hopes to achieve;
  • Developing a strategic plan for achieving that vision;
  • Having an inclusive planning process that involves consulting stakeholders and other levels of government; and
  • Encouraging the participation of diverse groups.

In the course of the Committee’s study, witnesses proposed a variety of themes that could be used to mark Canada’s 150th anniversary. Some view the occasion as an opportunity to pause and reflect on important points in Canadian history, both local and national. For others, it is more a time to think about the future, what Canada could become. Still others believe special attention needs to be focused on specific issues, such as First Nations and Aboriginal issues, multiculturalism, arts and culture, and information technologies and telecommunications. The witnesses told the Committee what they expect of the Government of Canada, certain federal departments and agencies in particular, in terms of guiding overall preparations. Specifically, they called for the creation of a commission that would be responsible for planning the various aspects of Canada’s 150th anniversary and asked that planning begin soon.

3.1 Themes to be developed for Canada’s 150th anniversary

Initial discussion of the country’s 150th anniversary raised an essential question: what are we going to celebrate? Are we going to commemorate important moments in Canadian history? Is the anniversary an opportunity to pay special tribute to those who shaped our history? Or is it an opportunity to think about the Canada of tomorrow? The evidence the Committee heard indicates that there are many possible answers to these questions.

Ms. Davies, whose training is in history, stated that “the idea of experiencing our stories is really important.”[70] Otherwise, Canadians “miss opportunities when we don’t reveal the richness of our stories and allow people to experience.”[71]

Robynne Rogers Healey, a history professor at Trinity Western University, echoed that view. However, she cautioned against reinterpreting Canada’s history in order to make the country look better: “Getting the story right, then, is critical.”[72] She urged the Committee to “consider the value of local history to the larger national narrative.”[73]

Several witnesses emphasized the need to ensure that the celebrations are not limited to the 150th anniversary of Confederation. Jeffrey Cyr, Executive Director of the National Association of Friendship Centres (NAFC), said that that date would disregard the contribution of the Aboriginal cultures and societies that lived in Canada long before 1867:

Canada cannot divest itself of the roles and place that Aboriginal peoples have played in the history of this country. Simply, the name Canada itself is an Aboriginal word, as are many other places and names in this country, including Ottawa, Quebec, and Manitoba. Therefore, any celebration of Canada’s birthday, including its upcoming 150th, must be inclusive of our rich cultures, traditions, and societies.[74]

The NAFC is counting on Canada’s 150th anniversary to revitalize Aboriginal cultures, particularly among younger generations:

So when we talk about a legacy, I would suggest maybe it’s a legacy of investment in the future of the country through young people, including through things like language, through Michif and the other Aboriginal languages as well, to preserve the 50-plus Aboriginal languages within the country. This is a certain sort of perspective that Aboriginal people might have coming toward the 150th birthday of the country.[75]

Several witnesses recognized that Canada’s Centennial in 1967 was a key moment in Canadian history, at once stimulating and productive. However, organizers of Canada’s 150th anniversary are going to have to take into account the profound changes Canada has undergone over the past 50 years. Mr. Thorsell, who was manager of the Western Canada Pavilion at Expo 67, stated that Canada has known regional conflict and experienced tough economic times since the late 1960s. He believes that Canada’s 150th anniversary must help build the nation. It is an opportunity to strengthen ties between Canadians “with a bias to looking towards the future.”[76] Mr. Thorsell underscored the need to recognize the close bond that exists between this land and the people who live here:

We now realize here that competent management of our territory is of exploding significance to us and to the entire world. We are going to be famous in history, unavoidably, for how we manage the Canadian equation alone: very few people, much land, the capacity as rich people to do something about it.

To do it well, a great many more Canadians need to get out and actually experience the breadth and depth of the land.[77]

The 150th anniversary should also reflect the changes that have taken place in Canada’s population over the past several decades. Mr. Thorsell noted that multiculturalism is now part of what makes Canada Canada:

This is a very significant change from 1967. The cultural differences among our communities and regions are deeper, the size of our minority communities is larger, and the concentration of different communities in certain suburbs or provinces is bigger. All of these trends are deepening. Canada is becoming multicultural with a capital G and a capital M, Global Multiculturalism.

How do we sustain shared commitment, knowledge, and familiarity among various communities in the country — a swath of common ground, if you will — so we do not become many more communities of others, not two solitudes but many?[78]

Mr. Thorsell was not the only witness to make the point that Canadian society is increasingly diverse from an ethnocultural perspective. Mr. MacLeod of the consulting firm MASS LBP sees the 150th anniversary as an opportunity to celebrate both the past and the future by focusing on diversity:

[D]iversity is Canada's pride; that it’s part of our character and it’s our strength, and 2017 should reflect that; that it is big ideas that ultimately contribute to a lasting legacy; that it should be an occasion to rekindle the sense of public imagination; then the idea, which I mentioned, that demography is destiny.[79]

Celebrating the multicultural nature of Canadian society was one of the strong elements that emerged from the Environics survey on Canada’s 150th anniversary:

These were the broad types of issues that people came up with out of their own minds when we asked the question. What’s important here is that people weren’t studying for this before we called them for the survey. This was their spontaneous reaction. As for some of the specific things that were mentioned in response to this question, number one was multiculturalism and welcoming people from other countries.[80]

The Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada (FCFA du Canada) acknowledges that multiculturalism has considerably changed the country since 1967. However, the recognition of linguistic duality in law and in the Constitution is new and must not be forgotten :

You know as well as I do that Canada has changed a great deal since its centennial in 1967. And the two major principles that have transformed our country most are undoubtedly linguistic duality and multiculturalism. Our communities know something about that. They are now more than ever levers for their own development thanks to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Official Languages Act.[81]

The FCFA du Canada wants to put forward “a vision of sharing, exchange and dialogue.”[82] The organization fully supports celebrations marking the 150th anniversary that include “anglophone and francophone Canadians, Métis and First Nations, as well as new Canadians and ethnocultural communities.”[83]

The Committee heard several witnesses who work in the arts, culture and heritage sector. They stated that Canada’s existing cultural and heritage infrastructures were built in the 1960s and 1970s. Canada’s 150th anniversary is an opportunity to celebrate the many talented Canadians who express themselves through music, theatre and performing arts.

Mr. Picard of the Just For Laughs Group, suggested taking advantage of existing arts events that are already well established throughout the country:

Canada’s major festivals and fairs are among the best in the world, with programming showcasing the best that Canada and the world has to offer. These events from across the country celebrate all aspects of Canadian culture, from fine arts and comedy to tragedy, from culture to agriculture--which have more in common that we would sometimes think--and sports. This network of world-class events should be engaged to develop programming to celebrate Canada 150 and provide a pan-Canadian showcase of Canadian achievement and talent.[84]

Mr. Picard added, “The major festivals and events that are members of Festivals and Events Canada (FAME) contribute to Canada being recognized worldwide as a cultural, vibrant nation.”[85]

Anita Gaffney, Administrative Director of the Stratford Shakespeare Festival, also stated that it is important “to showcase the great work of these major arts festivals.”[86] She put out the idea of introducing a passport similar to the one that was used at Expo 67 as a way of encouraging Canadians “to travel to these various events that are happening across the country in 2017.”[87] The Director General of the Confederation Centre of the Arts, Jessie Inman, also welcomed the creation of an “arts and culture passport”[88] that would allow holders to visit museums and concert halls across the country.

Ms. Price of Luminato, a Toronto festival of arts, culture and creativity, sees Canada’s 150th anniversary as a way of promoting Canadian cultural identity. She said that the festivals that take place all over the country could be the cornerstone of the 150th anniversary celebrations:

Festivals have the capability to transform their communities and bring people together in a spirit of social unity, and we’re an industry that drives tourism and social engagement and is already active in over 308 ridings across this country. On behalf of myself and I'm sure of my colleagues, really our message here today is that we are willing and able to come to the table to help ensure the success of this important 150th celebration undertaking.[89]

The Vice-President of Programming at the Banff Centre, Sarah Iley, shares Ms. Gaffney’s and Ms. Price’s point of view. She also believes that festivals can be put to use in 2017, stressing the need to form partnerships both within and outside Canada:

I can only imagine how exciting it would be for Canada to reach out to a whole range of different kinds of partners. Festivals are some of the partners within, but Canada should also reach out to partners outside.[90]

The Executive Director of the Glenn Gould Foundation (the Foundation), Brian Levine, spoke to the Committee about the organization’s future projects. The Foundation is planning to organize a major tour in 2017 to showcase Canadian talent, both at home and on stages around the world:

[T]he Glenn Gould Foundation proposes to mount a spectacular year-long Canada 150 world tour. Our specially selected dream team, representing the cream of our future musical stars, will perform for six months across the country, in major venues and smaller communities from coast to coast to coast, in a unique showcase presentation of Canada's most exciting musicians under 25. The six months in Canada will culminate in an epic Canada Day concert to express musically the dreams, hopes, and aspirations of all Canadians.

For the remaining six months we’ll be taking the show on the road, visiting world cultural capitals and spreading awareness of Canadian excellence and cultural brilliance.[91]

The Confederation Centre of the Arts (CCA) is considering an array of projects to celebrate Canada’s 150th anniversary. CCA director, Jessie Inman, explained that a visual arts exhibit on architectural projects carried out in the 1960s is in the works:

[T]his exhibit would help celebrate our 50th in 2014, tour nationally between 2014 and 2017, and finally culminate in an exhibition at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa.[92]

The Canada Games Council (the Council) also addressed the Committee. It submitted a brief which highlighted the fact that “Canada and sport developed side-by-side in this country and Canadian sport is intertwined with Canadian culture; they cannot be separated.”[93] The Canada Games will celebrate their 50th anniversary in 2017. The Council would be happy to “play a critical strategic leadership, partnership and unifying role among all stakeholders for this anniversary.”[94]

3.2 Role of information and telecommunications technologies

Owing to recent and rapid advances in information and telecommunications technologies (ITT), Canada is different than it was in 1967. Mr. Aykroyd stated that the technological environment has changed considerably since 1967:

It’s in the field of technology. It’s communications. It’s the whole question about what we are calling social media. Anybody can talk to anybody else in the world on the Internet and online. It’s a simply stupendous advance in communications and relationships of individuals with one another. It’s in that realm that things have changed. It’s in that realm that we should be looking to take advantage of this with the impetus of 2017 behind it.[95]

Several witnesses emphasized the need to use ITT in connection with Canada’s 150th anniversary. For example, social media have become an important means of consulting the public on a range of issues. Ms. Davies described ITT as an additional way of getting Canadians on board:

While the organizers of the 1967 centennial and Expo were certainly adept at using the technology at hand then, and there were some fairly sophisticated exhibits that travelled across the country, today I think of Twitter, social media, and Facebook. How we engage the Canadian community is probably quite different from the coffee klatsches around a kitchen table. Mind you, there is benefit to that as well. So as far as technology, communications, and the kinds of tools we use today to engage people, it is quite different.[96]

Several witnesses suggested that 2017 be identified as a pivotal year in the digitization of our documentary heritage. Ms. Healey sees access to and the availability of archival material as a unique opportunity to make Canadians more aware of their history:

In this digital age, it seems to me that so much more can be done to make archival materials from across the country available to all Canadians. Inspiring students to learn their history in documents is possible if the documents are widely available.[97]

A group of Canadians has joined forces under the name Canada 150 “to record their family histories, their community and organizational histories and corporate histories.”[98] Canada 150 hopes to collect millions of letters, diaries, photographs and other records that tell the personal and collective stories of millions of Canadians. The organization is relying on ITT to build “the most ambitious digital edifice of its kind in the world.”[99]

As the repository of Canadians’ permanent memory, Library and Archives Canada will actively continue the process of digitizing Canada’s documentary heritage it began several years ago. Mr. Caron, the Librarian and Archivist of Canada, observed that the digitization of records will be a major challenge in the years to come:

So 2017 has thus become a year of celebrations for Library and Archives Canada, but 2017 also represents a milestone in the modernization of the institution. The exponential growth in the number of information resource producers and the subsequent astronomical increase in the level of production make it impossible to acquire all the documentary production.[100]

The NFB, meanwhile, will continue to digitize its collection of films between now and 2017 and will make them available for viewing online. Since 2009, the NFB has offered more than 2,100 online films, clips and trailers for private viewing.

Ms. Gaffney, of the Stratford Shakespeare Festival, referred to the Stratford area as a leader in digital media. She believes that Canada could make it a goal to become a digital nation by 2017. The festival has a large body of archival material to digitize.

[2017 is] a real opportunity to grasp that moon shot and to look to cultural institutions to become engaged in technology and digital media. I think there would be opportunities to film our productions in 3D technology in order to be able to broadcast those, not just here in Canada but around the world, and to share them on line as well. So there are lots of opportunities around technology.[101]

Like the Stratford Shakespeare Festival, the Coastal Jazz and Blues Society has a collection of archives waiting to be digitized. The records cover decades of history of jazz in Vancouver. Canada’s 150th anniversary “provides a unique opportunity to digitize and share that across the country.”[102]

3.3 Witnesses’ expectations of the Government of Canada

Minister Moore appeared before the Committee to explain the Government of Canada’s plans for celebrating the country’s 150th anniversary. He stated that between now and 2017, a number of events will be commemorated:

  • 200th anniversary of the War of 1812;
  • 60th anniversary of the ascension of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (2012);
  • 100th anniversary of the Grey Cup (2012);
  • 100th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy (2017);
  • 100th anniversary of the National Hockey League (2017).

The Minister stated that all of these events are opportunities to celebrate strong elements of Canadian identity, such as “responsible government, democracy, and freedom; strong symbols and solid institutions; rights and duties of citizenship, a shared commitment to fellow citizens and the rule of law; [and] our veterans.”[103] Capping this series of events will be Canada’s 150th anniversary, an opportunity to “celebrate major events that have shaped our history and contributed to our national identity.”[104] Minister Moore added that this is a milestone “that should be acknowledged and celebrated in a big way.”[105] The Government of Canada

wants the 150th celebrations in 2017 to inspire just as much pride and national sense of identity and belonging as the centennial celebrations in 1967 and Vancouver 2010 put together.[106]

Mr. Aykroyd stressed the need “to have symbols that people can focus on and that just by their definition join us all together.”[107]

The general message from the witnesses was that they would like the federal, provincial and territorial governments and municipalities to work together to organize Canada’s 150th anniversary. However, some witnesses expect the federal government to take the lead in making preparations for the event. That was the finding of a survey of 1,000 Canadians carried out by Environics Research Group in February 2010. The respondents said they expect the federal government to be the driving force for organization of the event:

We presented about five different key actors, and asked what role they had to play. All five were seen as playing an important role, but front and centre was the federal government, most widely seen as having the biggest role to play. This is not at all surprising, given that this is something that's of national scope, and something that Canadians have typically looked to governments to play a leadership role in, if not a sole role.

If I were interpreting these numbers, I would conclude that it’s not that Canadians are looking for just the federal government to take this on, but they’re looking for the federal government to make sure that all the pieces are in place and the supports are there, and that the other partners are brought on board.[108]

Minister Moore stated that his department and the agencies in his portfolio will be involved in the country’s 150th anniversary within the confines of their respective mandates. Those agencies are CBC/Radio-Canada, the National Film Board (NFB), Library and Archives Canada (LAC) and the various national museums. Other federal institutions, such as the Parks Canada Agency, the Royal Canadian Mint and the National Capital Commission (NCC), are also interested in participating in the event.

CBC/Radio-Canada will showcase milestones in Canadian history between now and 2017, such as the bicentennial of the War of 1812, the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee, the 150th anniversary of the Québec and Charlottetown conferences, and Canada’s involvement in the First World War.[109]

The NFB, meanwhile, is hoping to develop a concept similar to Canada CODE, a digital edition of the Cultural Olympiad held during the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver. Between now and 2017, the NFB will continue to work in partnership with other federal agencies to celebrate certain events:

[T]he NFB intends to carry out many commemorative projects leading up to the 150th anniversary in 2017. We are prioritizing partnerships with institutions that come under the Department of Canadian Heritage for all those major projects to mark important events in Canadian history. We also intend to work with as many partners as possible in order to make the most of our activities.[110]

LAC plans to contribute to Canada’s 150th anniversary by making greater use of digital technology to give Canadians easier access to the country’s documentary heritage. It will be working with other federal institutions and libraries across the country to make collections accessible, primarily by creating the Pan-Canadian Documentary Heritage Forum. LAC stated that it would like to have a basic description of all its archival material by 2017.

Owing to its role in the preservation and presentation of Canada’s natural and cultural heritage, the Parks Canada Agency will be a key player in 2017. Parks Canada celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011 and came away from the experience with valuable insight. The success of the agency’s centennial celebrations was rooted in three main strategic elements:

  • to leave a legacy of lasting improvements;
  • to expand out impact by engaging partners: in the media, amongst our stakeholders, and across the federal family; and
  • to engage all Canadians, including our employees across the country.[111]

Parks Canada feels that its centennial festivities were a good warm-up for the celebrations marking Canada’s 150th anniversary in 2017.

In the Montréal area, Parks Canada plans to finalize the development of the Lachine Canal, Fur Trade at Lachine and Fort Chambly national historic sites. In the first two cases, the agency plans to work with the City of Montréal “to complete the development of the Lachine Canal and make it one of Montréal’s six key legacies.”[112] At Fort Chambly, Parks Canada will be carrying out extensive renovations to the existing buildings. For example, “the exterior park and adjacent buildings could be refurbished to become an area for cultural gatherings and activities during the 150th anniversary celebrations.”[113]

Nationally, the agency will continue to work with Citizenship and Immigration Canada to hold citizenship ceremonies at national historic sites. It will also consult Canadians on the establishment of new parks and historic sites. The Royal Canadian Mint issued commemorative coins in 1967 and 1992 and will do so again to mark Canada’s 150th anniversary in 2017. Between now and 2017, the Mint will continue to feature important Canadian historical figures and events:

The year 2012 is a very rich year in commemorative events that we're actively engaged in. The one that was mentioned for 2014, for the 150th anniversary of Charlottetown, is a big one on our radar.[114]

The Royal Canadian Mint pointed out that deciding which events should be commemorated and choosing appropriate images is a long and challenging process. Preliminary consultations have to be held with a number of stakeholders:

We use a pretty extensive process through market research. That’s the first cornerstone of the process, and obviously dialogue with many of our federal partners, namely, Canadian Heritage. We do annual research on commemorative themes. We actually have now complemented that by going biannually and testing themes ahead of time.

Our process to produce coins is done well in advance and takes anywhere from 12 to 18 months.[115]

For the NCC, Canada’s 150th anniversary is not some vague, far-off event. It is an event that is part of the Commission’s multi-year strategic planning. Between now and 2017, the NCC will work with other federal partners to mark:

  • the anniversary of the meetings of the Fathers of Confederation (2014);
  • the anniversaries of the First and Second World Wars; and
  • the bicentennial of the birth of Sir John A. Macdonald.[116]

The NCC is still at the preliminary stage of consultations on the country’s 150th anniversary. However, it has already learned that Canadians expect the nation’s capital to be at the epicentre of the 2017 festivities:

We have engaged Canadians in a nationwide conversation about the future of their capital, and 2017 will provide an extraordinary opportunity for the capital to play the role that Canadians expect: to proudly represent Canadian values and diversity, and to unite Canadians from sea to sea to sea in this great celebration. Rest assured that we intend to work very hard for Canada’s capital to fulfil this central role in the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of Confederation.[117]

Other witnesses have specific expectations of the federal government. The Métis National Council hopes the Métis Nation’s contribution to the development of western Canada will be showcased. The Council President, Mr. Chartier, would like the Department of Canadian Heritage to support “the development and expansion of Métis Nation heritage sites”[118] and hopes that a national museum of Métis culture will be built. There is also an expectation that the Department of Canadian Heritage will provide funding to preserve and promote the Michif language.

3.4 Creating a 150th anniversary commission

Ms. Davies attributed some of the success of Canada’s 100th anniversary in 1967 to cooperation among federal departments: “all departments, agencies, and commissions were involved in the centennial.”[119] She also made reference to cooperation between the federal government and the provinces:

What I can tell you from the experience of 1967 is that the federal government made a concerted effort to engage the provincial representatives and have a dialogue with respect to what the centennial could look like in the territories and the provinces.[120]

The Glenn Gould Foundation is willing “to play a significant role in the Canada 150 celebrations.”[121] However, it expects the federal government to set clear objectives and give arts organizations the freedom to honour their commitments as they see fit.”[122] Ms. Shaw of the Twentyten Group made a similar point:

[I]n summary, the critical aspects are to ensure that government create a vision that is solid and clear and directional, because what that vision does is put your stakes in the ground, whereby you spend money that is important to achieve your vision and don't spend money on aspects that are not going to help you achieve your vision. And it is critical that your strategic plan be done well in advance.[123]

Mr. Jackson of the Calgary group imagiNation150 also believes the federal government “can play a number of useful roles. One of them is as an information source, as an accumulator of ideas and opportunities.”[124]

The Mayor of the City of Ottawa, the Honourable Jim Watson, stated that the City is willing to look at taking part in the 150th anniversary celebrations. He has asked two city councillors to co-chair a task force on the subject.[125] The City is prepared to form partnerships with other organizations to make the occasion a memorable one. However, Mayor Watson would like the federal government to state its intentions regarding its plans for celebrating Canada’s 150th anniversary.

We will need some support and direction on what the federal government's plan are for Canada's 150th. Our request to you, through this committee, and we thank the committee for taking this on as an initiative, is we need to get a clear direction on how the federal government plans to celebrate and what resources, if any, are going to be available.[126]

A number of witnesses recommended that the federal government create a commission to plan the various aspects of Canada’s 150th anniversary: overall coordination of the event, programming, sponsorships, communications, etc. Among those sharing this view was Mr. MacLeod of the consulting firm MASS LBP:

[T]he government should set up a commission, and in short order, too. If you take the centennial as a significant precedent, the commission was created in 1962. As you know, if we want to build anything of any significance, that requires planning. […]

Even though it does seem to most Canadians as though we’re still a ways away from 2017, in fact in planning terms it’s practically tomorrow, so we do need to get moving.[127]

Like Mr. MacLeod, several witnesses raised the question of the timetable. 2017 may seem like a vague, far-off date, but considering the scale of the event to be organized, the federal government has to set to work right now. That is the point that was made by Guy Vadeboncoeur, Executive Director of the Stewart Museum:

“As participation in a pan-Canadian holiday of such scope requires commensurate preparation time, the federal government will have to announce sufficiently in advance not only the means that will be put at their disposal, but also the parameters that will allow them to have access to them. I believe a preparation period of at least three years is necessary before launching the program.”[128]

Mr. Picard of the Just for Laughs Group, commended the Committee’s working, saying, “it's never too early to talk about an initiative as far-reaching as the 150th anniversary.”[129]

Ms. Shaw of the Twentyten Group stated, “is critical that your strategic plan be done well in advance.”[130] She gave as an example sponsors who “don’t want to come on at the eleventh hour. The longer they have time to be part of what's going on, the more value and therefore the higher the return on the investment there is.”[131]

Mayor Watson also said that time is of the essence:

Although the 150th anniversary is a little more than five years away, it is crucial that we start planning for it now. Five years, as we all know, will go by very quickly and I want you to know that the City of Ottawa is ready and very willing to play a significant role in the organization and execution of this important milestone.[132]

Mr. Thorsell also spoke about the need to have an organization with specific goals:

In 1967 we had a centennial commission, so what you probably need is some kind of Canada 150 commission or something like that. If it had a mandate that was rigorous, it would not only receive ideas for mixing up and moving around, but it could provoke ideas, particularly when it comes to social class mixing, which I think is a great opportunity here.[133]

The FCFA du Canada expects the government to play “a leadership role on the occasion of Canada's 150th anniversary and supporting activities that create opportunities for dialogue among the various components of Canadian society.”[134] It recommends:

establishing a committee that would be responsible for coordinating preparations for the 150th anniversary celebrations for the Government of Canada in partnership with the provincial and territorial governments and Canadian civil society. That committee should be inclusive and, in particular, include representatives of the francophone communities outside Quebec.[135]

Linguistic duality has to figure prominently in activities that are financially supported by the federal government, and agreements with the provinces must include language clauses.

3.5 Private-sector participation

Mr. Aykroyd, who was public relations manager for the Centennial Commission, told the Committee that the private sector’s role in the celebrations marking Canada’s 100th anniversary was limited. It is therefore imperative that for Canada’s 150th anniversary, the following question be asked: “What part will the private sector play in the upcoming anniversary?”[136]

Ms. Shaw of the Twentyten Group stated that the Vancouver Games received a great deal of corporate support through partnerships between the private sector, the public sector and the organizing committee:

We formed partnerships with companies that had like visions and values to ours, and in our whole Canada game strategy, which was our vision, we knew that the Bells and the RBCs of the world wanted to align with something that included their customers from coast to coast to coast.[137]

Mr. Neuman of the firm Environics Research Group confirmed that Canadians in 2010 expected business to be involved in Canada’s 150th anniversary:

In the question on leadership, Canadian companies were on the list. We asked how important each of these sectors might be in playing some sort of leadership role in supporting the 150th celebration. All of them are seen as having some importance.[138]

That view was shared by Stuart Murray, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. He believes room has to be made for the ideas and resources of Canadian businesses:

Many successful Canadian companies have stories to tell in the context of the development of our nation. They should be invited as active partners to both have their stories told and to invest financially in community, sporting, arts, and cultural events.[139]

Mr. MacLeod of the firm MASS LPB also thinks Canadian companies have to be included in the process. He urged the Canadian Council of Chief Executives “to call all of its members”[140] for a conference.

Mr. Jackson of imagiNation 150 has had preliminary discussions with a number of Canadian companies. Some are willing to get involved in one way or another:

To the point about corporate involvement and business involvement, my experience so far — of course, it's very short, it's just a year old — is that there's a quick willingness to explore the contribution of finances and time. But a question I'm getting from all kinds of businesses in Calgary is on how they involve employees.[141]

3.6 The Legacies of the 150th Anniversary

A number of witnesses raised the subject of the legacies that would be left by the 150th anniversary celebrations. Their testimony tended to deal with the following three topics:

  • Renovating physical legacy projects from earlier celebrations.
  • Building new physical legacy projects to commemorate the contribution of cultural groups or to create a lasting memorial to the 150th anniversary.
  • Creating cultural legacies by commissioning works of music or plays.

3.6.1 Renovating physical legacy projects

As noted in section 2.6.1, a great number of cultural buildings, museums and sports facilities were built in communities across the country for the Centennial celebrations of 1967. Though fewer infrastructure projects were undertaken during the 125th anniversary celebrations in 1992, construction began on the Trans Canada Trail and some 450 Peace Parks were created.

A number of witnesses suggested that previously created legacy projects could be renovated. In his appearance before the Committee, Minister Moore pointed out that many of the infrastructure projects of 1967 — such as arenas — are in need of renovation and said:

We are doing a reassessment of all those projects. It wouldn't exactly be a great 150th celebration to have the infrastructure from the 100th celebration falling apart. We want to do a full assessment of how these arenas are doing and what part the government can take in that.[142]

Mr. MacLeod of the consulting firm MASS LBP made the same point, saying:

Part of the infrastructure question about 2017 is just taking stock of the previous legacies, thinking about whether they can be rehabilitated or improved, and then thinking about the sort of infrastructure that's appropriate to 21st century Canada as well.[143]

Ms. Evenden of the Canadian Museums Association said that given the economic climate it was not appropriate to create new museums, but that the museums built for the 1967 celebrations are in need of upgrades and expansions.[144] David MacKenzie, Deputy Minister, Department of Tourism and Culture with Senior Responsibility for Prince Edward Island's 150th anniversary, concurred, saying:

The philosophy that is growing is one of looking at the existing state of infrastructure in the country, and in Prince Edward Island specifically, and asking if we need to build and create new problems that all of us as public officials have to monitor very closely. When we look across the breadth of existing organizations...we think there are a lot of winners existing that need strengthening and support.[145]

By way of example, Mr. MacKenzie said that Province House, the provincial legislature building where the Fathers of Confederation met in 1864, requires about $4 million worth of renovations.[146]

One legacy project that witnesses suggested would benefit from additional work was the Trans Canada Trail. Mr. LaBarge, Chair of the Trans Canada Trail, talked about the plans to complete the trail by 2017, which he said would be “...the culmination of two and a half decades of work by volunteers.”[147] He said the project, which has only 6,000 kilometres left to go, would contribute to the success of the 150th anniversary celebrations:

... I think that's actually the impetus behind making Canada 150 successful: to create something that will continue to give to Canadians every day, on a go-forward basis. It will provide bridges across the country, bridges amongst communities, and bridges amongst generations.[148]

Mr. Thorsell was another witness who said the Government of Canada should complete the Trans Canada Trail project as a way of encouraging Canadians to travel and to get to know each other.[149]

In a written submission by the Calgary Centre for Performing Arts (CCPA), President and Chief Executive Officer Johann Zietsman and Director of Public Affairs Lisa Walli said the CCPA was undergoing a major capital expansion, and they asked the federal government to consider how the expansion project could complement planned celebrations.

3.6.2 Building new physical legacy projects

Some groups supported the construction of new physical legacy projects to commemorate the contribution of cultural groups or to create a lasting memorial.

Mr. Cyr of the NAFC called for Aboriginal participation in planning the legacies of the 150th anniversary and suggested it be done by “... a group of national organizations that sit down together and start working on how we bring legacy projects forward that properly reflect the history of those aboriginal peoples.”[150]

More specifically, Mr. Chartier, President of the Métis National Council, asked the Committee to “encourage Heritage Canada and national cultural institutions to support the development and expansion of Métis Nation heritage sites.”[151] Likewise, Mr. Dinsdale of the Assembly of First Nations suggested:

We could create a hall of leaders to recognize the contribution of First Nation leaders across this country. There could be an indigenous peoples library, both real and virtual, to catalogue and consolidate historical contributions that indigenous peoples have made to this country moving forward.[152]

A physical legacy project to commemorate the contribution of African Canadians to the development of Canada was also suggested. Anthony Sherwood of Anthony Sherwood Productions Inc. said: “One of the legacy projects for the 150th birthday of Canada could be the creation of a permanent national African Canadian museum. To limit costs, this museum could be created in an existing building, possibly in Toronto, Halifax, or Ottawa.”[153] Rosemary Sadlier, President of the Ontario Black History Society, agreed, saying:

For Canada's 150th, the dedication of a centre for African Canadian history and heritage, and/or the creation of a memorial, a monument to honour African Canadians, both for the benefit of the local and global communities, is vital to our survival as the Canada we say we are.[154]

Marie Lemay, Chief Executive Officer of the NCC, pointed out that in the National Capital Region, the construction of a number of physical legacy projects is already underway and that others are planned:

Monuments currently under development include the monument to the 100th anniversary of the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Firefighters Memorial and the National Holocaust Monument. A monument will also be dedicated to the war of 1812 as the country marks that bicentennial. We have several other commemoration projects that are at early stages of development.[155]

A new project for the National Capital Region was suggested by Mr. Thorsell who proposed building a pedestrian bridge over the Ottawa River between Ottawa, Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec.[156] Another was proposed by Mayor Watson of Ottawa, who said:

The old U.S. embassy located right across the street from Parliament Hill, on Wellington Street, can be and should be a showcase of Canadian innovations and achievements. In essence, our version of the Smithsonian in Washington.[157]

3.6.3 Creating cultural legacies

In addition to physical legacies, witnesses talked about cultural legacy projects. To quote Mr. Thorsell, “Canada's 150th anniversary should not be about things; it should be about relationships. It should not be about places; it should be about movement among places.”[158] In a similar vein, Ms. Shaw of the Twentyten Group also said the human legacy of celebrations is “profoundly powerful.”[159] Suggestions for cultural legacy projects included the writing of new plays, the composition of music, or the making of films and documentaries.

In his appearance, Minister Moore said the federal government is interested in investing in cultural legacy projects, but he also wondered about their long-term impact, given the fast pace of technological change: “Yes, we want to invest in cultural events and legacy projects like films and documentaries that are important to Canadians, but whether or not they'll have saliency 50 years after this is hard to say.”[160]

However, Fatima Amarshi, Executive Director of the Coastal Jazz and Blues Society of Vancouver, made the point that organizations such as hers are the legacy of earlier celebrations, in this case Expo ‘86. In arguing for support for cultural organizations, she said:

Please keep in mind that you are not only supporting the existing arts platforms and opportunities for Canadians to share their stories; you're really supporting the next series of organizations and cultural and artistic incubators of our identity that will be telling our stories for several generations to come.[161]

Ms. Price of Luminato, Toronto Festival of Arts and Creativity, said that the 2017 celebrations should “promote a new level of Canadian cultural identity and confidence across the globe. I would encourage the committee to think boldly about what legacy will be felt in content and in Canadian programming for years afterwards.”[162]

 

Many of the witnesses we heard have lifelong memories of the Centennial festivities in 1967. The fact that so many Canadians turned out for the celebrations appears to be a highlight of that unforgettable year. Ms. Davies made that phenomenon the central theme of a book titled The Politics of Participation: Learning from Canada’s Centennial Year. Ms. Davies’ research shows that the success of the Centennial festivities is attributable to the fact that the organizers did not set a theme, but rather left it to the public to celebrate however they wished:

As the organizers of Centennial learned, the key is to ensure sufficient flexibility to allow people to participate and get engaged in a fashion that is most meaningful to them and reflective of their own lived and shared experiences. People want to celebrate what is important to them as individuals and communities, whether virtual or communities of interest. By adopting a national framework, with overarching goals, Centennial organizers were not overly directive and did not impose a particular expectation of how people should get involved.[163]

According to Ms. Davies, major events like Centennial Year and the 2010 Olympics rally the public and generate enthusiasm because they are “powerful tools of symbol and spectacle.”[164]

A poll conducted by Environics Research Group showed that in 2010, Canadians were already looking forward to celebrating the country’s 150th anniversary, even though the occasion had not been advertised or promoted:

Are people interested in participating? We’re talking about something happening seven years down the road. They have no idea what it’s going to be, but 37% said they were very interested in participating in whatever it is, sight unseen. Most of the rest are somewhat interested.[165]

Minister Moore expects the celebration of Canada’s 150th anniversary to be as big an event for Canadians as the 2010 Olympic and Paralympics:

Canada’s 150th has the potential to be an even greater celebration than what we’ve seen, in every respect, because it will in fact involve all Canadians from all communities of all sizes in projects and celebrations of every description that will not only honour our past, but also inspire a bright future.[166]

As stated earlier, the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Vancouver provided an opportunity for broad public participation. Ms. Shaw told the Committee that the Olympic Torch Relay was “a critical aspect of achieving our greater vision of engaging Canada.”[167] Planning the Relay entailed long hours of preparation and public consultation:

At the end of the day, what’s important is the ability and the strategy going in to create an opportunity for everybody to connect. Whether it’s Quebec, B.C., or Nova Scotia, that initial vision and strategy provides the ability to connect and engage at the grassroots level and up, with the government leading the way and providing the leadership for that engagement. That's what will be paramount to its success.[168]

Mayor Watson of Ottawa proposed “converting Canada Day into Canada Week, a week-long celebration of Canadian talent, culminating on July 1 with the biggest and proudest party in the country.”[169]

Mr. Jackson of imagiNation150 stated that Canada’s 150th anniversary needs to be “something that activates citizens broadly and activates what might be unrealized leadership in the country.”[170]

Marie-France Kenny, President of the FCFA du Canada, reiterated the importance of ensuring that Canada’s 150th anniversary reflects the country’s linguistic duality. There are francophone minority communities all over the country. They engage in dialogue with other segments of the Canadian population. The 150th anniversary celebrations will create “opportunities for dialogue among the various components of Canadian society.”[171]

Witnesses representing Aboriginal peoples voiced specific expectations regarding the involvement of First Nations in the celebrations. First Nations would like to be part of the entire process, from planning to delivery. Aboriginal peoples were a vital part of Australia’s Centennial in 2001. A decade later, Australia’s High Commissioner to Canada, His Excellency Justin Hugh Brown, described their participation as one of the highlights of his country’s Centennial:

A big feature of the year was to try to involve all of the Aboriginal communities and to put our political differences, if you like, to one side and celebrate what we've achieved as a country. To depoliticize the process was a prominent thing.[172]

Mr. Dinsdale of the Assembly of First Nations stated with regard to the country’s 150th anniversary, “[T]here is an opportunity here to tell our story, […] to be a part, as partners in Confederation, […] of the ceremonies themselves.”[173] The involvement of Aboriginal peoples in the opening and closing ceremonies at the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver set an example. Mr. Chartier of the Métis National Council believes there are lessons to be learned for the future:

The engagement of the four host First Nations right from the outset, in terms of the bid and getting support from the national Aboriginal organizations, I think was precedent-setting, and it was something that could be potentially looked at in terms of major events that will be taking place in Canada.[174]

Mr. Cyr of the NAFC is also prepared to become involved in the event:

As we move towards 2017, the NAFC and our member friendship centres are willing and able partners in commemoration activities in support of Canada's 150th anniversary. Friendship centres are vibrant community spaces that support cross-cultural education and offer opportunities for dialogue between Canadians and Aboriginal peoples, to come together to listen, learn, and share in a spirit of friendship and respect.[175]

Several witnesses pointed out that multiculturalism is now deeply rooted in Canadian society. The fact that Canada has become an ethnically and religiously diverse country must be taken into account in making preparations for the 150th anniversary. For Mr. MacLeod, this is a challenge that goes beyond simply engaging that segment of the population:

There’s no question that demographics have changed this country dramatically, and again, I think that’s why this isn’t just an exercise in public engagement. […]

For all of those who are new to Canada, perhaps it makes that conversation only that much more relevant and pressing. We have excellent institutions across this country that can help stage that conversation […].”[176]

Mr. Thorsell observed that the demographic changes that have taken place in Canada afford a unique opportunity to build bridges between the various communities that make up this country:

And so I would say that Canada's 150th anniversary should not be about things; it should be about relationships. It should not be about places; it should be about movement among places. It should not be about existing communities or groups; it should be about networking among communities and mixing up groups. It should not be about government defining a country; it should be about individuals and groups discovering their country and thereby redefining it themselves.[177]

Mr. Thorsell is an avid fan of exchanges between Canadians “that [mix] up people by demographics and [get] them out of their own backyards into other parts of the country.”[178] A commission could be given the task of implementing this type of initiative, which would be called “Mix-Up and Move Around”:

[W]hat you probably need is some kind of Canada 150 commission or something like that. If it had a mandate that was rigorous, it would not only receive ideas for mixing up and moving around, but it could provoke ideas, particularly when it comes to social class mixing, which I think is a great opportunity here.[179]

The FCFA du Canada believes it is essential “to focus on activities that encourage dialogue and exchange among young people.”[180] However, it promotes a broad vision of the concept of dialogue that includes Canadians of all ages from all regions who work in similar fields of endeavour:

It is also important that exchange and dialogue initiatives not be launched merely at the national level. They should involve people in all regions of the country and at the local level, where the Canadian experience is more vibrant and original. With regard to these exchanges, which may occur between schools and organizations operating in a single sector or groups of citizens, we believe we should focus not on an outdated vision of the other group, but rather on its assets and knowledge, on who we are today. We believe that tourism, culture, heritage and economic development are promising areas.[181]

The Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC) is actively thinking about ways to get Canadians excited about the 150th anniversary celebrations. It is hoping to create a mass movement that would start with young people between the ages of 16 and 29 and spread to other segments of the population. The CTC thinks it will get that result by launching an initiative that will help young Canadians travel the country at a lower cost:

The CTC could build a youthful, enticing identity for Canadian travel. Second is blitz and buzz. We'd get the message out through a media blitz coast to coast to coast, and cultivate social media buzz — that groundswell we talked about. Third is experience, giving them a reason for their travel in 2017, the most obvious one being to join the mass of others and not be left out.[182]

The CTC estimates it would cost $30 million over six years if the federal government is interested in organizing this project.

Many witnesses endorsed the idea of exchange programs between students. According to Ms. Healey, Canada’s physical size makes contact among Canadians a challenge. Exchange programs would help overcome that challenge:

The movement is north and south, not east and west, because it's a huge country. I think we should encourage programs that allow students to mix and to move around.[183]

Mr. Cyr of the NAFC sees exchange programs as a way of getting Aboriginal youth in urban areas “back to […] Aboriginal communities in rural or remote settings.”[184]

imagiNation150 believes it is important to connect high school students who will be graduating in 2017. The group has already made preliminary contact with chambers of commerce across the country to discuss how communities, cities, towns and provinces can get involved in Canada’s 150th anniversary.

The Black Cultural Society of Nova Scotia submitted a brief to the Committee outlining its views on Canada’s 150th anniversary. Its President, Leslie H. Oliver, reiterated the importance of including all Canadians in the celebrations. The anniversary is an opportunity to shed new light on the “thousands of black immigrants who have come to Canada in more recent years from Africa and the Caribbean are a significant portion of the population of Canada.”[185]

Mr. Sherwood stated that the 150th anniversary is an opportunity to spotlight the role played by African Canadians in building Canada: “African Canadians’ contributions to Canada and the world must not be overlooked in the 150th birthday celebration.”[186] Ms. Sadlier conveyed a message similar to Mr. Sherwood’s, describing the celebration of Canada’s 150th as

a time to embrace the diversity that is Canada through underscoring and showcasing the long-term presence, achievements, and experiences of Canadians of African origin who define Canada’s multicultural reality.[187]

 

5.1 Introduction

Part of the Committee’s study of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations focused on the contribution of museums. The Committee heard representatives from six national museums and nine smaller museums, as well as the Canadian Museum Association and the Association des musées québécois. This chapter looks at the witness’ testimony regarding the role of museums in celebrating the 150th anniversary, museums’ plans for the 150th anniversary, ideas for encouraging people to engage with museums during 2017, and the possible role of the federal government as it relates to museums and the 150th anniversary.

5.2 The role of Museums in Celebrating the 150th Anniversary

Several witnesses talked about the contribution museums can make to national celebrations. Ms. Healey, the historian, talked about the importance of small museums:

In communities across Canada, thousands of school children go through these museums' doors each year and experience the history of their communities' pioneers, connecting them to the larger story of their country. [...] I'd encourage the committee to consider the value of local history to the larger national narrative.[188]

Mr. Murray of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights concurred, saying, “Well-planned, well-executed celebrations have the capability to fundamentally change the way people see themselves, their country, and their place in it.”[189] He went on to state:

Like the passing of the torch ..., the 150th anniversary celebrations present an opportunity to strengthen the fabric of our nation and serve as a positive catalyst for growth for generations to come. But what if, instead of a torch, we passed on the stories of our nation, the stories of perseverance, of struggle, of community, of triumph?[190]

Some witnesses stressed the importance for museum exhibits to reflect the country’s diversity. Ms. Evenden of the Canadian Museums Association (CMA) proposed that:

... we ensure these celebrations are inclusive for all Canadians, with special recognition given to our Canadian diversity and our Aboriginal roots as a country. Museums should, with a presentation of artifacts and of our intangible cultural heritage, celebrate the people, the stories, the songs, the traditions, the ideas that continue to shape this country. These celebrations, these moments to come together, are about looking back, but they are about looking back so that we can move forward, continuing to innovate and to build Canada's cultural and heritage sector.[191]

5.3 Museums’ Plans for the 150th Anniversary

Many of the National Museums of Canada have begun planning for the 150th anniversary. To quote Minister Moore:

Our national museums are planning travelling exhibits and staging them out. I know that the War Museum, the Museum of Civilization, and the National Gallery all have different travelling exhibits they're preparing, from now through 2017.

I think everybody's using 2017 as a moment to cantilever on all kinds of really great programs. I think we'll get Canada's collections, our history, our art, and our incredible diversity of educational materials all across the country. Partnerships with local and regional museums are something that everybody is looking forward to.[192]

Meg Beckel, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Museum of Nature, said a permanent gallery on Canada's Arctic will open in 2017.[193] Mark O'Neill, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation, said his Museum will create a major national history exhibition, which will include travelling components, a lecture series, virtual activities and publications.[194] Marc Mayer, Director and Chief Executive Officer of the National Gallery of Canada, said the National Gallery is planning a complete reinstallation of its Canadian permanent collection, integrating indigenous art as well as photography. It is also planning a commemorative publication on 150 years of art history in Canada.[195] Mr. Murray of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights, said the Museum, which is being constructed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is considering ideas for online and travelling exhibits that aim to engage many groups and communities.[196]

Marie Chapman, Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21, which is located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, described the Museum’s plans to create an exhibit known as “Canada: Day 1”, which will be based on immigrants’ memories of their first day in Canada. Beginning in 2014, the exhibit will travel across the country collecting oral histories and stories. To quote Ms. Chapman:

What we want to do with our first travelling exhibit is to go across the country and collect those memories and those reminiscences, and then reflect them back in the exhibit [...] [W]hen the exhibit comes back to the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 in 2017, it will look dramatically different from the way it did when it left.[197]

Denise Amyot, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Science and Technology Museums Corporation, said the Corporation is planning to celebrate objects, people, places, and careers. With the help of Canadians, it plans to identify 150 scientific and technological innovations that have affected the lives of Canadians. It also would like to expand the Canadian Science and Engineering Hall of Fame from its current 51 members to 150 by 2017. In addition, it plans to identify places of great scientific and technological interest across the country, and invite Canadians to visit them.[198]

Some witnesses suggest that for the 150th anniversary, new museums could be created or existing ones expanded. Mr. Chartier, President of the Métis National Council, suggested establishing a national Métis museum in Winnipeg.[199] Mr. Sherwood of Anthony Sherwood Productions Inc. suggested creating a permanent national African Canadian museum, possibly in an existing building,[200] and Ms. Sadlier of the Ontario Black History Society talked about the creation of a centre for African Canadian history and heritage.[201] Louise Pothier, Director of Exhibitions and Technologies at the Pointe-à-Callière, Montréal Museum of Archaeology and History, talked about the Museum’s expansion plans, which she said could be a legacy project for the 150th anniversary.[202] As mentioned in section 3.6.2, Mayor Watson of Ottawa proposed the creation of a showcase of Canadian innovations and achievements in the old United States Embassy building across the street from Parliament Hill.[203]

Another proposal was that Exporail, the Canadian Railway Museum in Saint-Constant, Quebec be recognized as Canada’s National Railway Museum. In addition to Marie-Claude Reid, the Executive Director of Exporail, this proposal was supported by Garry Anderson, Executive Director of the Canadian Museum of Rail Travel in Cranbrook, British Columbia.[204]

Other witnesses did not recommend major new museum projects, preferring to emphasise the renovation or restoration of existing museums. For instance, Ms. Evenden of the CMA said:

For 2017 we do not recommend large-scale capital projects of the magnitude we saw in 1967. Given the economic climate, we believe it's just not appropriate to create new museums. However, many existing museum buildings built during that time and beyond require upgrades and expansions.[205]

Likewise, Mr. MacKenzie, of the Prince Edward Island Department of Tourism and Culture, said that consideration is being given to building on existing historic sites rather than “creating a new museum with new management, new expenses, and new funding requests.”[206]

5.3 Encouraging people to engage with museums in 2017

If museums are to play an important part in the 150th anniversary celebrations, Canadians need to be able to see their exhibits. As mentioned above, some museums are planning travelling exhibits and/or will be using social media to reach Canadians.

Mr. Thorsell, who was Director and Chief Executive Officer of the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) from 2000 to 2010, said that programs to bring people — especially children — to museums would fit well with a 150th anniversary theme aimed at bringing people together and moving them around.[207] Jane Fullerton, Chief Executive Officer of the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John, New Brunswick, also said it was important to get youth engaged with museums.[208]

As a way of encouraging people to visit museums, Benoît Légaré of the CMA suggested offering free admission from National Aboriginal Day on June 21, 2017 until July 1, 2017. He said funding would be required to offset museums’ loss of revenue.[209] The idea of free admission was supported by Ms. Fullerton of the New Brunswick Museum.[210]

Many witnesses remembered the Expo 67 passport, which was stamped at each pavilion visited. The idea of a similar passport which would be stamped at each museum visited was suggested by a number of witnesses as a way of encouraging people to visit museums during 2017. Mr. Légaré said such a program could be accompanied by a national ad campaign and prizes for participation.[211] Others who said the idea of a passport should be considered included Pierre Landry of the Société des musées québécois,[212] Ms. Gaffney of the Stratford Shakespeare Festival,[213] Mr. LaBarge of the Trans Canada Trail,[214] and Michelle Bélanger, General Manager of the Musée des Abénakis on the Odanak Reserve in Quebec.[215] On the other hand, Jean-Denis Gill, General Manager of the Native Museum of Mashteuiatsh on the Mashteuiatsh Reserve in Quebec, said that while the idea is interesting, its success would be somewhat mitigated in more remote regions.[216]

Mr. Légaré also called for “a national marketing campaign to promote various museum activities across the country and to raise awareness of the importance and value of our history and culture.”[217] He went on to suggest the creation of major exhibits, saying:

This could mean major exhibits in larger museums or travelling exhibits that criss-cross the country by train, like the centennial train in 1967. Obviously the virtual aspect is part of it and can be developed along with strategies that constitute a nod to the past. I think that we should really focus on virtual strategies to encourage people to participate. There could be a virtual exhibit with images, archives and key artifacts from each museum, all tied together as part of the 150th anniversary, or a multimedia exhibit in partnership with CBC/Radio-Canada for example and other national media outlets to broadcast a program about 150 artifacts and artworks that define Canada.[218]

The idea of creating virtual exhibits and using new media to encourage Canadians to engage with museums was suggested by a number of witnesses. As noted above, some museums will use social media to ask Canadians to suggest ideas for exhibits. Museums will also make their exhibits available electronically. For example, Ms. Pothier of Pointe-à-Callière Museum talked about using social media to reach people across Canada.[219] As well, Minister Moore talked about how the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 might use new media to reach Canadians:

We also want the programming to be available across the country and that the institution of the Canadian Museum of Immigration not only have a physical presence in Halifax, but that new media be used and that it be available in other museums in regions throughout the country.[220]

Pierre Wilson, Director-Curator of the Musée des maîtres et artisans du Québec in Montréal, Quebec, said that virtual exhibits can be developed rapidly.[221] Ms. Bélanger of the Musée des Abénakis said the federal government could publicize the virtual exhibits.[222]

5.4 The Possible Role of the Federal Government

Some ideas that might involve the federal government have already been mentioned. These include assisting with the creation of exhibits and supporting campaigns to encourage Canadians to visit museums, such as providing free admission for a certain period, implementing a passport program for museum visits, and establishing a publicity campaign.

In addition, several witnesses — particularly those from smaller museums — talked about the challenges they are having in meeting operating expenses, and asked the government to provide financial assistance to prepare exhibits for the 150th anniversary. Ms. Bélanger from the Musée des Abénakis said it would be impossible to contribute to the commemoration of the 150th anniversary without financial aid from the federal government.[223] Mr. Gill of the Native Museum of Mashteuiatsh[224] and Ms. Reid of Exporail[225] gave similar testimony. Also on the subject of funding, Ms. Evenden of the CMA put forward the following proposal:

... we recommend the establishment of a formal multi-year grants program to begin the development and implementation of the celebratory projects as soon as possible. Additional funding from the private sector should and will be sought. Some projects can be fully funded from private sources, while others require federal investments. A multi-year grant program will ensure that the tight timelines are met and will take into consideration the ancillary anniversaries leading up to the 150th anniversary of Canada.[226]

Furthermore, John McAvity, Executive Director of the CMA, proposed developing greater philanthropy and private support for museums through a matching donations program by which private donations would be matched by the federal government.[227] This idea was supported by Judith Baxter, Volunteer Director of the John Fisher Memorial Museum in Kingston, New Brunswick[228] and Ms. Fullerton of the New Brunswick Museum.[229]

A number of witnesses talked about the need to address the rules regarding funding so that smaller museums in particular can access funding to prepare for the 150th anniversary. Some witnesses requested that the funding rules be made more flexible. To quote Guy Vadeboncoeur, Executive Director and Chief Curator of the Stewart Museum in Montréal:

I believe government aid that could be made accessible to museums for the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of Canadian Confederation should take into account the precarious situation of most Canadian museums, on the one hand, and their diversity, on the other. Any organization or entity entrusted with distributing funding should have some more flexible rules than those that are presently imposed by the Department of Canadian Heritage, for instance in the context of the Museums Assistance Program.[230]

Ms. Baxter of the John Fisher Memorial Museum pointed out that current funding programs require that a museum have at least one full-time employee, which limits the ability of small, volunteer-run museums to access funding.[231] She also asked that the paperwork for funding applications be simplified.[232]

Mr. Landry of the Société des musées québécois said that the money allocated to the celebration of the 150th anniversary should have a lasting impact. Indeed, he saw the anniversary as an opportunity to provide support for museums. He said: “Commemorative events could be combined with major investments to strengthen Canada’s museum network, the flagship of our culture and heritage and guardian of our memories and communities.”[233] He also said that, “funds should be awarded based on merit as determined by peer committees without political interference.”[234]

Pierre Wilson, Director-Curator of the Musée des maîtres et artisans du Québec in Montréal, Quebec, said the 150th anniversary provided the opportunity to create permanent legacies. He said:

… although I agree the 150th anniversary of Confederation is an occasion to celebrate and dazzle throngs of tourists, it is also important to remember continuity, what will endure and stand the test of time when all the tourists have gone home and the international media has turned its attention elsewhere.[235]

Several witnesses talked about the need for smaller museums to collaborate with each other or with larger museums in order to make the most of limited resources. For instance, Ms. Healey, the historian, testified:

As to how we tie museums together, I think that museums in small regions, or even in large regions, need to be encouraged to work together instead of at cross purposes. In the community that I live in — and I sit on the board of one museum — there is competition, and usually it's for resources. That's usually the problem. It's not a competition over the narrative; the competition is over who's going to get the funding to be able to do more work. Museums need to be encouraged to become part of the larger story, not just to preserve employment for themselves.[236]

Ms. Fullerton of the New Brunswick Museum suggested that museums could collaborate by mounting small-scale showcase exhibits of special treasures in each other’s museum.[237] Ms. Bélanger of the Musée des Abénakis talked about the success of the Médiat-Muse network in the Mauricie and Centre-du-Québec region and said that it would be more appropriate and cost-effective to distribute funds through such networks.[238]

As has been mentioned elsewhere in this report, the need to begin planning soon was stressed by witnesses from museums. To quote Ms. Fullerton: “... 2017 is not that far away. For us, this is a planning time if we want to build on what exists, if we want to take advantage of the upcoming commemoration activities.”[239] Both she and Mr. Wilson of the Musée des maîtres et artisans du Québec said that it would require at least two years in order to plan effectively.[240] Ms. Bélanger of the Musée des Abénakis said that the call for projects should be done by 2013.[241]

 

After considering the testimony it heard, the Committee adopted the following recommendations:

Planning:

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada make its plans known as soon as possible so that its partners at the provincial, territorial and municipal levels, as well as in the private sector, can begin planning.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada develop an effective mechanism for consulting the provinces, the territories and the Canadian public regarding plans for Canada’s 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that, following consultations with the provinces and territories, the Government of Canada establish an overall framework to encourage Canadians to participate in the celebrations of Canada’s 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada consider the creation of an independent agency or corporation to plan, organize and implement Canada’s 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada ensure that Aboriginal peoples, ethnocultural communities, official language minority communities and other groups be consulted on the framework.

The Committee recommends that the Department of Canadian Heritage and/or any related independent agency or corporation charged with the planning, organization and implementation of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations submit regular progress reports to the Committee.

Legacies:

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore ways of providing special assistance with the marketing of new works of artistic expression created for Canada's 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore ways of assisting with the touring of Canadian performing arts groups during the 2017 celebrations.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations consider ways to encourage communities and donors to assist with the completion of the Trans Canada Trail.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore projects to digitize Canada’s documentary heritage as part of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations.

Participation:

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore using information technologies and social media to encourage participation in Canada's 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations assist in tourism marketing focused on Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore incentives to encourage all Canadians to explore their country during 2017.

Museums:

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore ways of supporting the development of museum projects related to Canada's 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations explore ways of supporting the development of travelling exhibits during Canada’s 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations announce any plans regarding museum projects related to Canada’s 150th anniversary as soon as possible.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations study its programs that support museums to see whether they could be modified to encourage local museums to cooperate with each other in the creation and promotion of exhibits related to Canada's 150th anniversary.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations examine incentives that could encourage Canadians to visit museums during 2017. Incentives could include a passport and/or free admission for the week leading up to July 1, 2017.

The Committee recommends that the Government of Canada or any agency authorized to undertake the organization of Canada’s 150th anniversary celebrations consider a national marketing campaign to promote museum activities related to Canada’s 150th anniversary.

 



[1]              IPAC and MASS LBP, The Power of Public Imagination: Planning Canada’s Sesquicentennial. Report of the 150!Canada Conference, Ottawa, March 2010, p. 7, http://www.masslbp.com/download/150!CanadaReport.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2012.

[2]              Minutes of Proceedings, Meeting No. 2, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, September 27, 2011.

[3]              Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0855.

[4]              Ibid.

[5]              Statistics Canada, “Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present,” http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/98-187-x/4151287-eng.htm. Accessed May 11, 2012.

[6]              The original Centre Block was destroyed by fire in 1916.

[7]              Department of Canadian Heritage, Canada Day: Background, http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/jfa-ha/canada-eng.cfm. Accessed February 16, 2012.

[8]              Statistics Canada, “Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present,” op. cit.

[9]              $3.3 million in 2012 dollars.

[10]           Department of Canadian Heritage, Dominion Day: Origin and special observance, http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/jfa-ha/dominion-eng.cfm. Accessed February 16, 2012.

[11]           Ibid.

[12]           Department of Canadian Heritage, Canada Day: Background, op. cit.

[13]           CBC/Radio-Canada, The Early Years: 1920-1939, http://cbc.radio-canada.ca/history/1920-1939_details.shtml. Accessed February 16, 2012.

[14]           Statistics Canada, “Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present,” op. cit.

[16]           Statistics Canada, “Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present,” op. cit.

[17]           Library and Archives Canada, “Centennial Commission fonds,” op. cit.

[18]           Helen Davies, The Politics of Participation: Learning from Canada’s Centennial Year, MASS LBP and Helen Davies, Toronto, 2010, pp. 48-52, www.masslbp.com/download/davies.pdf.

[19]           Robert Bothwell, “Centennial Year,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada, 2012, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/centennial-year. Accessed May 11, 2012.

[20]           Helen Davies, The Politics of Participation: Learning from Canada’s Centennial Year, op. cit., pp.53-55.

[21]           Robert Bothwell, “Centennial Year,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, op. cit.

[22]           Helen Davies, The Politics of Participation: Learning from Canada’s Centennial Year, op. cit., Appendix A.

[23]           Senate, Journals, 34th Parliament, 2nd Session, April 3, 1989, p. 11.

[24]           “Canada 125 Corporation Unveils the First Phase of its Programming: Backgrounder,” Press Release, Canada 125 Corporation, Ottawa, December 12, 1991.

[25]           Canadians Said It Loud and Clear: Report of the Canada 125 Corporation, Canada 125 Corporation, 1993, p. 63.

[26]           Ibid., p. 14-16.

[27]           Statistics Canada, “Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present,” op. cit.

[28]           Canadians Said It Loud and Clear: Report of the Canada 125 Corporation, Canada 125 Corporation, op.cit., p. 16-27.

[29]           Ibid., p. 52.

[30]           Government of Canada, “Timeline,” Canada’s Games, http://www.canada2010.gc.ca/101/tmln/010101-eng.cfm. Accessed May 11, 2012.

[31]           Government of Canada, “Canada’s Investments,” Canada’s Games, http://www.canada2010.gc.ca/ invsts/index-eng.cfm. Accessed May 11, 2012.

[32]           Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0915.

[33]           Ibid., 0940.

[34]           Ibid., 0915.

[35]           Ibid.

[36]           Ibid., 1025.

[37]           Ibid, 0920.

[38]           Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0855.

[39]           Ibid., 0955.

[40]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0900.

[41]           Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0900.

[42]           Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0920.

[43]           Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 0905.

[44]           Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, Evidence, April 3, 2012, 1110.

[45]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0900.

[46]           Evidence, Meeting No. 17, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, December 6, 2011, 0855.

[47]           Evidence, Meeting No. 22, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 14, 2012, 1145.

[48]           Evidence, Meeting No. 19, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, January 31, 2012, 1155.

[49]           Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0855.

[50]           Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 1, 2011, 0940.

[51]           Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0900.

[52]           Ibid.

[53]           Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 0905.

[54]           Ibid., 1035.

[55]           Evidence, Meeting No. 19, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, January 31, 2012, 1205.

[56]           Ibid., 1155

[57]           Ibid., 0905-0910.

[58]           Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 1035.

[59]           Ibid.

[60]           Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0930.

[61]           Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0950.

[62]           Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0850-0855.

[63]           Ibid., 0855.

[64]           Ibid., 0900.

[65]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 1040.

[66]           Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 1, 2011, 0945.

[67]           Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 0905

[68]           Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0910.

[69]           Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 1005.

[70]           Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 1030.

[71]           Ibid.

[72]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0915.

[73]           Ibid., 0920.

[74]           Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0905.

[75]           Ibid., 0925.

[76]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0900.

[77]           Ibid., 0905.

[78]           Ibid.

[79]           Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 1000.

[80]           Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0905.

[81]           Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1105.

[82]           Ibid.

[83]           Ibid.

[84]           Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 1, 2011, 0945.

[85]           Ibid., 0935.

[86]           Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 0855.

[87]           Ibid., 0850.

[88]           Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1250.

[89]           Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 0900.

[90]           Ibid.

[91]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0855.

[92]           Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1130.

[93]           Canada Games Council, Prepared for the House of Commons Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage, 150th Anniversary of Canada and the Canada Games, April 2012, p. 1.

[94]           Ibid., p. 3.

[95]           Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0930.

[96]           Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 1005.

[97]           Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0925.

[98]           Canada 150, Brief, Canada 150, Prepared for the House of Commons Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage , April 23, 2012, p. 1.

[99]           Ibid., p. 5.

[100]         Evidence, Meeting No. 17, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, December 6, 2011, 0905.

[101]         Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 1000.

[102]         Ibid., 0925.

[103]         Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0855.

[104]         Ibid.

[105]         Ibid.

[106]         Ibid., 0900.

[107]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0945.

[108]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0905.

[109]         Evidence, Meeting No. 7, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 25, 2011, 0915.

[110]         Evidence, Meeting No. 17, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, December 6, 2011, 0855.

[111]         Speaking notes for a presentation to the House of Commons Committee on Canadian Heritage, The Experience of Parks Canada’s Centennial, 2011-2012, p. 2.

[112]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1130.

[113]         Ibid.

[114]         Evidence, Meeting No. 19, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, January 31, 2012, 1220.

[115]         Ibid.

[116]         Evidence, Meeting No. 19, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, January 31, 2012, 1215.

[117]         Ibid., 1220.

[118]         Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0855.

[119]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0945.

[120]         Ibid., 1025.

[121]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0920.

[122]         Ibid., 0935.

[123]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0900.

[124]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0915.

[125]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1020.

[126]         Ibid., 1110.

[127]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0920.

[128]         Evidence, Meeting No. 22, 41st Parliament,1st Session, February 14, 2012, 1210

[129]         Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament,1st Session, November 1, 2011, 0935

[130]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament,1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0900.

[131]         Ibid., 0955.

[132]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament,1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1105.

[133]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 1020.

[134]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1110.

[135]         Ibid.

[136]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0955.

[137]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0900.

[138]         Ibid., 0900.

[139]         Evidence, Meeting No. 21, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 7, 2012, 1200.

[140]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 1010.

[141]         Ibid., 1000.

[142]         Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0920.

[143]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 3, 2011, 0940.

[144]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1110.

[145]         Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 0920.

[146]         Ibid., 1020.

[147]         Ibid., 0915.

[148]         Ibid., 1035.

[149]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0910.

[150]         Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0955.

[151]         Ibid., 0855.

[152]         Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 0850

[153]         Evidence, Meeting No. 14, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 24, 2011, 0850.

[154]         Ibid, 0910.

[155]         Evidence, Meeting No. 19, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, January 31, 2012, 1215.

[156]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0910.

[157]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1100.

[158]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0905.

[159]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0935.

[160]         Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0920.

[161]         Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 0925

[162]         Ibid., 0905.

[163]         Helen Davies, The Politics of Participation: Learning from Canada’s Centennial Year, Toronto, 2010, p. 11.

[164]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0915.

[165]         Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0855.

[166]         Ibid.

[167]         Evidence, Meeting No. 8, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 27, 2011, 0850.

[168]         Ibid., 0935.

[169]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1105.

[170]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, November 3, 2011, 0910.

[171]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, April 26, 2012, 1110.

[172]         Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, November 1, 2011, 0920.

[173]         Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, November 29, 2011, 1020.

[174]         Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0940.

[175]         Ibid., 0905.

[176]         Evidence, Meeting No. 10, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, November 3, 2011, 1015.

[177]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0905.

[178]         Ibid., 0910.

[179]         Ibid., 1020.

[180]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1110.

[181]         Ibid.

[182]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, April 24, 2012, 1120.

[183]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, November 17, 2011, 1000.

[184]         Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0955.

[185]         Black Cultural Society of Nova Scotia, Canadians with African Heritage — Sesquicentennial Themes, November 24, 2011, p. 6-7.

[186]         Evidence, Meeting No. 14, 41st Parliament, 1stSession, November 24, 2011, 0850.

[187]         Ibid., 0910.

[188]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0920.

[189]         Evidence, Meeting No. 21, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 7, 2012, 1150.

[190]         Ibid., 1155.

[191]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1110.

[192]         Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0910.

[193]         Evidence, Meeting No. 21, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 7, 2012, 1145.

[194]         Ibid., 1210.

[195]         Evidence, Meeting No. 22, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 14, 2012, 1200-1205.

[196]         Evidence, Meeting No. 21, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 7, 2012, 1155.

[197]         Ibid., 1215.

[198]         Evidence, Meeting No. 22, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 14, 2012, 1150.

[199]         Evidence, Meeting No. 13, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 22, 2011, 0910.

[200]         Evidence, Meeting No. 14, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 24, 2011, 0850.

[201]         Ibid., 0910.

[202]         Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 1, 2011, 0955.

[203]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1100.

[204]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1200.

[205]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1110.

[206]         Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 0920.

[207]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2012, 0910.

[208]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1255.

[209]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1115.

[210]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1225.

[211]         Ibid.

[212]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1115.

[213]         Evidence, Meeting No. 11, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 15, 2011, 0850.

[214]         Evidence, Meeting No. 15, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 29, 2011, 1014.

[215]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1215.

[216]         Ibid.

[217]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1115.

[218]         Ibid.

[219]         Evidence, Meeting No. 9, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 1, 2011, 1015.

[220]         Evidence, Meeting No. 6, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, October 20, 2011, 0940.

[221]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1255.

[222]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1120.

[223]         Ibid., 1115.

[224]         Ibid., 1140.

[225]         Ibid., 1150.

[226]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1110.

[227]         Ibid.

[228]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1205.

[229]         Ibid., 1225.

[230]         Evidence, Meeting No. 22, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, February 14, 2012, 1210.

[231]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1215.

[232]         Ibid., 1245.

[233]         Evidence, Meeting No. 24, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 3, 2012, 1135.

[234]         Ibid.

[235]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1235.

[236]         Evidence, Meeting No. 12, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, November 17, 2011, 0930.

[237]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1220.

[238]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1210.

[239]         Evidence, Meeting No. 25, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 24, 2012, 1225.

[240]         Ibid., 1245.

[241]         Evidence, Meeting No. 26, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, April 26, 2012, 1115.

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