Deputy Commissioner Larry Beechey (Deputy Commissioner, Traffic Safety and Operational Support, Ontario Provincial Police):
I'd like to thank you for the invitation to speak to the committee today in relation to the OPP's role in supporting security for the 2010 summits.
I was the executive lead for the G-8 and G-20 summits for the OPP and part of the executive steering committee for the G-8 and G-20 during the operation.
The security operation put in place for the G-8 summit was the largest ever undertaken in the history of the OPP. It is our opinion that through collaboration and extensive planning with our security partners, a successful security operation was delivered as effectively and efficiently as possible.
Following the announcement in June 2008 that the G-8 summit would be held in Huntsville, the OPP began preliminary security planning. In January 2009, the OPP dedicated five members to the RCMP-led integrated security unit, located in Barrie. By the time the summit happened, that number had grown to 109 members.
These members were deployed in a number of functions, such as: operational command, which included project management and communications; planning functions, such as community relations, crime, prisoner processing, marine, site operations, and traffic management; logistics, which oversaw human resource mobilization, assets, telecom, information technology, and vehicles; finance; and as well, our joint intelligence group.
Many working relations in the ISU had already been forged during previous major events. The highly collaborative atmosphere within the ISU allowed many issues to be addressed during the day-to-day discussions. A clearly defined organizational structure based on the incident management system also facilitated collaboration across disciplines and agencies.
During the planning stage, a formal interoperability group was established, involving senior agency leads from all ISU security partners. The establishment of joint operational planning groups further drove the integration.
During the G-8 summit security operation, the OPP deployed a total of 2,488 members in the following functions: site operations, which included interdiction zones in the Town of Huntsville, proactive and reactive patrols, surveillance zones, and infrastructure protection; traffic operations in and around the summit and the major highways; crime management, including proactive and reactive teams, forensic identification, and prisoner processing; the community relations group, including community outreach; specialized field resources in the matter of public order units, tactical response units, aviation services, canine and underwater search and recovery teams, crisis negotiation, tactical emergency medics, obstruction removal, and CBRNe; marine operations; logistical operations to support our members in the field; public affairs and communications; intelligence operations; and our command and control.
The OPP was part of the unified command centre in Barrie, which provided strategic level coordination between the G-8 and G-20 theatres of operation. At the operational level, the Muskoka area command centre was the primary operational command centre for the OPP's G-8 operations. The M-ACC, as it was called, was also a unified command structure involving the three key agencies in G-8 security: the RCMP, OPP, and Canadian Forces. The M-ACC included command/coordination leads for each of the major functional units reporting to the OPP operations commander.
The OPP commenced their security operations on the morning of June 23, going through the evening of June 26. During this time, the majority of our security forces were deployed 24/7.
There was minimal protest activity in relation to the G-8 and there were no G-8-related arrests. There were some challenges we had to deal with relating to getting our internationally protected people from Muskoka to Toronto with the air bridge, as we had to make some amendments to our security operation.
I can tell you on behalf of the OPP that if anything had happened to disrupt the summit meetings in Huntsville, we were fully prepared to handle it.
We were also prepared to assist, and did so, during the G-20 summit. With the exception of the 400 series highways, the OPP generally had a preplanned supportive role in G-20 security operations, involving functions such as the motorcades, route security, marine operations, and command and control.
In closing, I'd like to comment that, as a provincial police service, the OPP has a long history of supporting as well as relying on other police services throughout the province to ensure public safety. We believe that the operations delivered in support of the 2010 summits stand as a solid example of strong integration and collective efforts in securing these meetings.
I'd like to thank you once again for being able to come here to speak to you today about our role.
Mr. Kevin Gagnon (As an Individual):
Thank you for having me here today. My name is Kevin Gagnon. I am a biochemistry student at the Université du Québec à Montréal. I went to the G20 meeting to protest peacefully for the environment because the future of our planet is something that concerns us all.
I never would have believed that I would be arrested that weekend. I would have believed even less that I would end up being charged with conspiracy. Being before you today to tell this story seems unreal to me. I still cannot believe that it happened.
I was arrested around 9:00 when I was asleep in a gymnasium with about a hundred other people. When I woke up, police officers were jumping over my mattress. They pointed their guns at me and yelled at me in English not to move. I was not yet fully awake and I was completely traumatized. The arrest took about four or five hours. No one read me my rights during that time. It took about three hours before I was able to go to the toilet. When you get woken up that way, you need to go to the toilet, you really do.
I was then driven in a paddy wagon to the temporary detention centre. The trip took an hour and a half. Other people told me that, for them, the trip was three hours. The police holding them put the heat right up instead of the air conditioning, for fun.
I noticed several things when I got there. First, in the cages, there was a toilet open and in plain view to anyone passing by. There was no toilet paper. So it was not uncommon for people the detainees to have to wipe themselves with sandwich wrappings that were lying on the floor. I saw that a number of times. I did not do it myself.
In the 18 hours following my arrest, I was given only a sandwich and a glass of water. I was in handcuffs for about 15 hours. The first time my rights were read to me was 16 hours after my arrest. After that, I was told that, if I answered some questions, I would be let go. I had my two bags with me and I was really thinking that I would get out.
A higher-ranking police officer took my file, looked at it and whispered something to the other officers. Instead of being let go, I was strip-searched. The two officers who did the search apologized, told me that it really was unwarranted and that they wanted to get it over with as quickly as possible.
I was then taken into another room and I asked once more if I was going to be able to see an investigator soon. They said yes, but, as I waited, I had to give them my shoes, my belt and my glasses. I was taken into another cage. There I really got worried.
In that cage, I saw detainees who were really panicked; we were told nothing. We did not know what was going to happen to us, we had not been read our rights. Theoretically, we had none. We were not given the right to a phone call or anything. I saw people scratching their arms with the end of a zap-strap in order to write a lawyer's telephone number. We were not yet at 16 hours, and things had come to that.
As a number of people have described, it was really cold in the cages at the temporary detention centre. It was so cold that we really thought we were going to go into hypothermia. Detainees had to huddle together to keep warm; after a while, there was no choice.
It seems to me that, if I had been a police officer, I would have taken the initiative to bring blankets or something—the budget was $1 billion, after all. We got a lot of homophobic comments from the police officers, both male and female. They laughed at us, because we were a bunch of guys huddled together.
A few hours later, three jumpsuits, the orange prison jumpsuits, arrived for seven people. So we had to take turns wearing them, but no one wanted to take my suit because I was so frozen.
In the morning, a rumour went round that the UN was coming to inspect the facility. Suddenly, the temperature went up. A police officer came to see us, we mentioned that the temperature was going up and he told us that they had shut off the air conditioning. He seemed to be mocking us a bit.
Afterwards, I kept asking every police officer who went by—and there were a lot—if I could see an investigator. I was never able to explain myself. When they came to get me, I was taken somewhere else to be fingerprinted. When I arrived in that room, there was a line of people waiting to have their fingerprints taken. I got the impression that it was a central booking area. I did not know if they intended to do a blacklist, but, at that point, I really would have liked to be able to explain to an investigator that I was no threat to anyone. Unfortunately, I never got that chance.
After that, I went off in a paddy wagon again, under the same conditions. You really feel claustrophobic in a paddy wagon, which is just a metal box. The trip to the cells at the court took a very long time again.
After being under arrest for 32 hours, I was finally able to speak to a lawyer. When I appeared in front of her and she saw the condition I was in, she started crying. When your lawyer starts crying, it is not a good day. Honestly, I did not know what was going to happen to me. I broke down in tears too; I was in a complete panic. We talked and I left.
The officers who took me back to my cell hurled a bunch of insults at me. They said that we Frenchies should have stayed at home. They accused me of being a member of the black block and told me that they had pictures to prove it, pictures of me smashing things. I told them I had had nothing to do with things like that, but they kept on all the same.
Around 9:00 p.m., I was finally able go before a judge. She looked at me and said that she had been working since the morning and that she wanted to go home to bed. She told us to come back the next morning. Then the person I was handcuffed to and I looked at her and said that we would be sleeping in a cell again. After that, we were put in a paddy wagon once more and taken to Maplehurst Prison. That had to have been another couple of hours, at least. It was very cold in the paddy wagon.
When we got to Maplehurst, I was strip-searched twice in an open cubicle, in full view of all my cellmates. They gave me a tuberculosis test, although I had refused. I said that I did not want anyone injecting me with anything. Anyway, I did not understand why I was being formally processed into the prison since I was supposed to go back to the court in the morning. So I refused the test, but they said that they would give me the injection by force if necessary. They also took my orange prison jumpsuit away. I started to get cold again, even though the temperature at Maplehurst was a little better. We had to sleep on a cement floor again. “Sleep” is the wrong word because we only had three hours and we had all been cold from the time we had been on our feet. I did not sleep, anyway.
My hearing was scheduled for 9:00 a.m the next morning. I was supposed to be back in court, but I got there around noon because there were not enough paddy wagons to take us. My lawyer was not able to find me in the prison cells all day. She tried everything she could. But I was there. How is it possible for the police to lose track of me? If they couldn't find me, shouldn't they have sounded the alarm because a prisoner was missing?
I went before the judge around 7:30 p.m. I was released under strict conditions, like having to leave Toronto within 24 hours. When I got back to my cell, one detainee had completely lost his mind. We had not slept for 55 hours. He did not know where he was and was completely disoriented. Nothing he said made sense. The rest of us tried to keep him calm by telling him that he was going to get out. But we were afraid for ourselves as well because we knew that we were close to cracking.
I got out around 11:00 p.m. when the paperwork was ready. The police forced me to sign a bail document. It contained errors, one of which was my address, though one of the conditions was to provide a correct address. They just said:
“Just sign the fucking paper or I will put you right back in jail”.
When I got out, I had no wallet, no money, no shoes, no glasses, no cellphone and no keys. I was in a city that I did not know. I could not read the street names. It was 12 degrees outside and I was in a T-shirt and pants that were falling down because I had no belt. I had 24 hours to leave Toronto and to get my personal effects that, supposedly, were 45 kilometres away.
If people had not come to get me that evening, I would have been arrested again.
Chief William Blair (Chief, Toronto Police Service):
Good afternoon, Chair and members of the committee.
Thank you for giving me the opportunity to come before you to speak today.
I am the Chief of the Toronto Police Service. The Toronto Police Service was a member of the integrated security team, which has already been articulated to you by Deputy Commissioner Beechey. I won't repeat his explanation about how that operated.
I have come before you today to give you the opportunity to ask me any questions with respect to the operational policing decisions that were made in the city of Toronto over the course of the entire G-8 and G-20 summits events.
During that time, responsibility for policing the city of Toronto was--and it remained--the responsibility of the Toronto Police Service in partnership with members of the integrated security unit. We saw ourselves as possessing three responsibilities.
The first responsibility was public safety: the safety of our citizens and the maintenance of public peace and the rule of law to prevent crime and to protect our citizens.
In addition, we also shared responsibility with our summit partners to protect the summit site, to facilitate the movement of internationally protected persons and other summit participants throughout the city, and to work generally to maintain the safety and the security of that site.
Finally, a very significant responsibility for the Toronto Police Service was the facilitation of lawful, peaceful protest. Over the course of the 10 days of the summit event, there were many protests that took place in Toronto that were lawful and peaceful. We were able to work with the people who had organized those events to maintain a peaceful environment so that people could come forward, express their political dissent, express their opinions, and exercise their democratic rights.
Unfortunately, as the week progressed, and on Friday evening in particular, we saw a greater threat emerging from within those lawful peaceful protests.
Mr. Chair, I have brought some images here today that I think may be of assistance to members of this committee. I know that you have heard testimony about and many references in the media and from others to the black bloc. With your permission, I thought it might be of value to you to see some images of the black bloc as it presented itself in Toronto.
Chief William Blair:
Yes. I'll offer a brief explanation because I know that you want to get to your questions.
On Friday afternoon, there was a demonstration that left from Allan Gardens, which is located in the area of Carleton Street and Jarvis Street in the city of Toronto. It moved west across Carleton Street and College Street to the front of police headquarters. As that protest group moved across College Street, a group within this group donned black disguises, and there were others who were masking as well.
If you get a closer view of these pictures, you can see people masking. You can see how, in the larger protest--a protest of some 3,000 to 5,000 people--a group formed within that group and was donning disguises. From that group, a number of objects began to be thrown at my police officers. There was, frankly, a very real apprehension of a breach of the peace, and we had to bring in public order officers to maintain order.
On Friday afternoon we were successful in preventing this particular group from within the protest from launching a criminal attack on the city.
On Saturday, we were confronted with a greater challenge. On Saturday there was a protest that was organized primarily by the labour movement and the Ontario Federation of Labour and that exceeded approximately 10,000 protesters. They were very cooperative with us. They worked very collaboratively in helping us marshal and rally their event. As we moved around the city with that event, what emerged from within that group were several hundred individuals who obviously did not have the intent of engaging in lawful, peaceful protest, but rather had the intent of trying to penetrate the perimeter site of the summit and to engage in criminal behaviour.
With our public order officers, we prevented their penetration into the summit area, and unfortunately, they turned their criminal intent toward more vulnerable targets. They ran away from our police officers, who were positioned and deployed to protect the summit site, and they began to charge across Queen Street and up Yonge Street. I think you are all familiar with the images of members of that group who were smashing windows, burning cars, looting stores, and generally causing a great deal of mayhem through vandalism and violence in the city of Toronto.
We began to take the steps necessary to contain that threat. Over the course of that weekend, the criminal conspiracy to commit criminal acts did not end on Saturday afternoon, and it did not end when they left Yonge Street. It continued. We were gathering intelligence and information from within the crowd, and we had other sources of information that made it very clear to us that the criminal intent of the people involved in those criminal acts continued throughout the weekend.
Our ability to continue to police lawful, peaceful protests was, quite frankly, compromised by the actions of those who instead undertook the actions of a mob and engaged in criminal acts. Decisions were made by our operational commanders and by our major incident commanders that it was necessary to disperse those crowds to prevent a breach of the peace and, if the crowds refused to disperse, to take persons into preventive detention. And that did take place over the course of the weekend.
I want to tell you that since that event a number of reviews have been taking place that I think will be helpful for this committee to understand. First, on the Monday following the summit event, the Toronto Police Service announced that we would be undertaking and completing a Summit Management After Action Review Team report. That report is in its final stages of draft. When it is completed, it will be presented as is appropriate by me, through my civilian oversight body, our Police Services Board, in order to explain to my board--to which I'm accountable--the operational decisions and tactics deployed in that particular event and to provide information about them.
In addition, we have in Ontario a legislative process for the oversight of public complaints against the police. It is headed by the Independent Police Review Director, Mr. Gerry McNeilly. I understand that approximately 280 complaints have been received by Mr. McNeilly. They are being investigated by his office. He has also announced that under section 57 of our Police Services Act, he will be conducting a systemic review of the policing of the summit event. This is his legislated responsibility in Ontario.
In addition, our Ontario Human Rights Commission and the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario are able to address any human rights complaints that are brought forward.
We also have a special investigative unit in Ontario that is an independent investigative body whose responsibility it is to conduct investigations in any matter in which a person experiences serious injury or death. Those investigations are conducted independent of the police. There were five such investigations being conducted by the special investigative unit and we are waiting the outcome of their reports.
My Police Services Board is fulfilling its responsibility and has announced that it is conducting a review of issues with respect to governance, communication, and police deployment. Over the course of the summit event, they have engaged with retired Justice John Morden in order to conduct this review. The Toronto Police Service is cooperating fully with Justice Morden and with all of the aforementioned reviews and investigations that I've mentioned.
In addition, the Province of Ontario has appointed retired Chief Justice Roy McMurtry to conduct a review of the Public Works Protection Act, a piece of provincial legislation that was relevant in the policing of the summit.
In addition, the Ontario ombudsman has announced the he is reviewing the process by which the Government of Ontario passed a regulation. Pursuant to the Public Works Protection Act, there are a number of civil processes currently under way, including class action lawsuits. Many of the complaints will be dealt with not only through the aforementioned processes but through our civil courts.
Finally, there are a significant number of criminal trials that are currently under way because of the work of Detective Sergeant Giroux and his team, which you'll hear about shortly. They have identified a significant number of people who were responsible for much of the criminality that occurred in the city of Toronto during the weekend of the G-20 summit.
I'll be happy to answer your questions.
Det Sgt Gary Giroux (Detective Sergeant, Toronto Police G20 Investigative Team, Toronto Police Service):
Good afternoon. My name is Detective Sergeant Gary Giroux. I'm the operational case manager of the G-20 investigative project team that was formed on June 28, 2010, as a result of the criminality that took place within the downtown core of the city of Toronto.
The mandate of the project team is an offender-based criminal investigation with regard to the G-20 related criminality that took place within the city of Toronto on Saturday, June 26, 2010. All of the prosecutions are based on identification of the offender by still photographs and video or witness testimony.
To date, we've received 40,000 still photographs that were provided to the investigators by private citizens and by undercover police officers within the crowd to assist us in our investigation. We've received 500 videotapes that were taken by the public and were provided to us for our assistance. Citizens within the city of Toronto and the greater Toronto area provided statements to the police with regard to the criminality they witnessed while present at the G-20 demonstrations.
In addition, we have 22,000 hours of closed-circuit cameras that were positioned in the downtown area of the city, 22,000 hours of closed-circuit cameras that recorded the criminality that took place on that particular day. We had aerial support from planes and helicopters from a variety of policing agencies. We had surveillance cameras that were provided to us by private businesses and office towers in the downtown area.
Some of the offenders who committed these offences, including arsons, were wearing no disguises at the time of their offence.
Others--several hundred black bloc individuals who wore dark clothing and disguises--transitioned throughout the downtown core breaking windows. They clearly came to the city of Toronto with a clear agenda to damage property. These individuals are in addition responsible for assaulting citizens and police officers and burning and destroying a number of marked uniform police cars. The dollar value on June 26, 2010, is estimated to be in excess of $2 million.
As a result of the tremendous support from the public, the masked offenders were followed and tracked through the crowd until their disguises were removed--in essence, their “de-blocing” tactics. At that time, there were photographs. With the assistance of the media and the release of these photographs, those offenders have been identified, and a number of them are in custody.
The arrests that my project officers have made have taken place within the city of Toronto and the greater Toronto area and in numerous other parts of the province of Ontario, the province of Quebec, and the province of British Columbia. Some of the offenders were arrested prior to the violence that took place on June 26, but were arrested in other offences related to the G-20. At the time, the Toronto police already had their photographs for comparison purposes for the criminality that took place on Saturday, June 26.
To this date, there have been 37 arrests, many of them of black bloc offenders. There have been 131 criminal charges laid to this point, including arson, assault, mischief, mischief endangering life, and assaulting police officers. The majority of the offenders, during their interrogation and when confronted with the physical photographic evidence, go on to confess to my investigators with regard to the criminality that they participated in.
To this point, arrest warrants and extradition orders will be sought for three American citizens who participated in over $500,000 worth of damage. All three of them are members of the black bloc. Their offences total over 100 criminal charges. They're all American citizens. These offenders are all known and they will all be apprehended.
One of the offenders, who lives within the greater New York area, attacked the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce while armed with a miner's pickaxe, striking windows 20 feet high, for a total damage of $385,000. The damage took less than 30 seconds to commit.
The Canadian Bankers Association has offered assistance with regard to facial recognition software. It will be instrumental in a number of the most serious offender prosecutions. These prosecutions have dedicated crown attorneys who have carriage of all of my G-20-related criminal prosecutions, and many of the crown attorneys will be seeking penitentiary sentences for these offenders.
Numerous offers of assistance from other policing agencies within Ontario, Canada, and the United States have been provided to my officers. Additional arrests are pending. The investigation is active and ongoing.
Chief William Blair:
Particularly with respect to the London summit--let me speak to that--I believe that it really is a comparison of apples and oranges.
First of all, the national police service of England is located in London. I believe there are 40,000 police officers working in London, which is also an international city that polices a number of very significant crowd control events and is adequately staffed for that.
Certainly, in the city of Toronto, I have 5,600 police officers, but we had to maintain business continuity and continue to police our city. We could not have policed an event of the magnitude of the G-20 in Toronto without the support of other police services from across Canada.
There are costs associated with bringing those police officers to Toronto, costs for housing them and feeding them and providing them with the necessary equipment to do their jobs. I believe this accounts to a large degree for the differences in expenses between what transpired in England and what transpired in Toronto.
In addition, I believe that the London numbers pertain only to the actual overtime costs of the personnel involved. I have learned from my experience with the G-20 that, in addition to overtime costs, there are many other costs associated with providing security for an event of this kind.
Chief William Blair:
I'll be very quick.
First of all, most of my police officers were with the 10,000-plus people who were lawfully demonstrating. We have a responsibility to them as well. We had our public order people arrayed to protect the summit site.
Unfortunately, when police officers were being assaulted and attacked, police officers in their cars were driving into the area surrounded by, frankly, the mob. The choice was either to drive through the mob, thereby putting people—even if they're involved in criminal activity—at considerable risk. As they attacked the cars, the police officers, on a couple of occasions, were compelled to abandon their cars because they were attacked and physically assaulted in the cars by the mob. That's what transpired on the streets.
It took some time, quite frankly, to disengage from the 10,000 people in the demonstration and from the summit site to bring people up in an effort to contain those several hundred people who had run away from the police to begin smashing windows, burning cars, and looting stores. It takes some time to do that. Then they immediately went into another area and took off their disguises.
But fortunately we have many video images and, through the good work of our investigators, we have been able to identify these individuals. Because I think there's an expectation among Canadians that the people who engage in criminal acts will be held accountable for their crimes. That's why we've worked so hard to identify these individuals.
But let me assure you that my officers were put in a very dangerous and difficult situation in those circumstances. Many of them acted with great courage and restraint. I can also tell you that over the course of that weekend we had thousands of cameras pointed at us every day—every hour of every day, in every action of the police.
With great respect, I think that all of those video images that have been posted and displayed demonstrate quite clearly that the officers acted with restraint; they acted according to the rule of law; they acted within their lawful authorities; they maintained their discipline; and they did their very best to protect the citizens of Toronto, while at the same time trying to facilitate lawful, peaceful protest.
The overwhelming majority of citizens helped us and cooperated with that. Some chose not to and placed themselves at risk of being apprehended and arrested.
Chief William Blair:
Actually, we worked very closely with our citizens and with various groups that were planning to engage in protest. We met with the organizers of the majority of those protests that took place throughout the week. We offered our assistance in helping them plan their events and helped provide safe rallying points to work together collaboratively in providing security for that event. I believe very sincerely that it was the intent of the overwhelming majority of people who came to Toronto to protest to do so lawfully and peacefully. We worked very closely with them.
I think we have a good tradition in this country. I believe I have a good tradition in Toronto in doing everything we can to facilitate lawful, peaceful protests. There is a line, of course, where you have to ensure that balance between the right of the public to be safe and secure and the right of our individual citizens to express themselves. We find it's best to keep that balance by working collaboratively with the people who are planning these protests.
For example, we also worked to provide a place where people could rally. It has often been called a sort of “free speech zone”, and it was not, and I made very public statements as we prepared for the summit that all of Canada is a free speech zone. But we did provide a facility in the northern part of Queen's Park where people could rally, where they could gather, and we would work with them to help them park their cars and gather safely. We would direct traffic around them and move with them as they engaged in protest. That took place on several occasions. There was even a demonstration on Saturday involving tens of thousands of lawful, peaceful protesters who we were working with and walking with and we had great cooperation from them.
It's very unfortunate that the right of Canadians to engage in lawful, peaceful protest was compromised by the actions of criminal groups who made it impossible, frankly.
I have to tell you that one of the challenges of trying to police lawful, peaceful protests and respect all citizens' rights to express themselves is that it's very difficult when you're also trying to manage a mob. The mob was using the cover of a large, law-abiding crowd to launch their illegal attacks on the city and on our citizens. It did compromise our ability, to some extent, to continue to work to maintain those lawful, peaceful protests and the protestors' rights to do that.
Even after the riot had taken place, there were other protests that were taking place and that we were able to work with, but some of our ability to do that was made very difficult. Even as we moved with 10,000 people, with several hundred were attacking our city, we stayed with the 10,000 and we got them back safely to their points of origin. We allowed them to do what they had come to do, which was to protest lawfully.
Chief William Blair:
They're all trained and qualified police officers, but in preparation for this event, we first of all cancelled all their leaves, because we needed all hands on deck. Everybody had to work--everybody working in Toronto. It was not only the Toronto police officers, but all of the police officers who were coming to help us.
First of all, they were all given two online training requirements that they had to complete successfully, and then at least one full day of operational training. Most of the online work pertained to their legal authorities. We wanted to ensure that our police officers knew the limits of their authorities and that they knew how to work together in maintaining public safety.
So we trained together, and even in preparation for the event, we gathered most of those resources in the week leading up to the summit site. So although there was at least one full day of formal training, they were working collaboratively together for the five or six days before the site.
Training was very important to us. We wanted to make sure that our people knew how to work together, that our communication systems worked, that there was consistency in our policies and operational directives, and that there was a very clear line of communication and a clear line of command.
One of the challenges in policing an event of this magnitude is ensuring that your people maintain their ranks, maintain their discipline, and do their job in a way that is lawful. So we trained our people quite relentlessly in preparation for this event.
Quite frankly, we know, because events like the G-20 have happened in other places, that public complaints are an inevitable result. Civil suits are an inevitable result. Calls for public inquiries are also an inevitable result. Quite frankly, calls for the resignation or firing of the chief of police are usually an inevitable result. We prepared our people for those complaints. We took every prudent step we were able to in order to ensure that our people knew their jobs, that they were properly supervised and properly managed, and did their job according to the rule of law.